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Wave power absorption: Experiments in open sea and simulation
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. (Elektricitetslära)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. (Elektricitetslära)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. (Elektricitetslära)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. (Elektricitetslära)
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2007 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 102, no 8, 084910-084910-5 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A full scale prototype of a wave power plant based on a direct drive linear generator driven by a point absorber has been installed at the west coast of Sweden. In this paper, experimentally collected data of energy absorption for different electrical loads are used to verify a model of the wave power plant including the interactions of wave, buoy, generator, and external load circuit. The wave-buoy interaction is modeled with linear potential wave theory. The generator is modeled as a nonlinear mechanical damping function that is dependent on piston velocity and electric load. The results show good agreement between experiments and simulations. Potential wave theory is well suited for the modeling of a point absorber in normal operation and for the design of future converters. Moreover, the simulations are fast, which opens up for simulations of wave farms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 102, no 8, 084910-084910-5 p.
Keyword [en]
Hydroelectric, hydrothermal, geothermal and wind power, Ocean energy extraction, Ocean waves and oscillations
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95684DOI: 10.1063/1.2801002ISI: 000250589300146OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-95684DiVA: diva2:169993
Available from: 2007-03-23 Created: 2007-03-23 Last updated: 2017-01-25Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Modelling and Experimental Verification of Direct Drive Wave Energy Conversion: Buoy-Generator Dynamics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling and Experimental Verification of Direct Drive Wave Energy Conversion: Buoy-Generator Dynamics
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is focused on development of models and modelling of a wave energy converter in operation. Through the thesis linear potential wave theory has been used to describe the wave-buoy interaction. The differences lie in the generator models, in the simplest model the generator is a mechanical damper characterized by a damping factor. In the most advanced generator model the magnetic fields is calculated the by a FE-method, which gives detailed description of the electric properties and the effect it has on the buoy dynamics. Moreover, an equivalent circuit description of the generator has been tested. It has the same accuracy as the field based model but with a strongly enhanced CPU time. All models are verified against full scale experiments. The models are intended to be used for design of the next generation wave energy converters. Further, the developed models have also been used to study what effect buoy geometry and generator damping have on the ability to energy absorption.

In the spring 2006 a full scale wave energy converter was installed at the west coast of Sweden. It was in operation and collected data during three months. During that period the load resistance was varied in order to study the effect on the energy absorption. These collected data was then used in the verification of the developed models.

In the year 2002 a wave energy project started at Uppsala University; this work is a part of that larger project which intendeds to develop a viable wave energy conversion concept.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2007. 76 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 287
Keyword
Engineering physics, Wave energy, Potential wave theory, Linear generator, Simulations, Experiments, Point absorber, FEM, Equivalent circuit theory, Teknisk fysik
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-7785 (URN)978-91-554-6850-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-04-13, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-03-23 Created: 2007-03-23 Last updated: 2010-11-10Bibliographically approved
2. Energy from Ocean Waves: Full Scale Experimental Verification of a Wave Energy Converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy from Ocean Waves: Full Scale Experimental Verification of a Wave Energy Converter
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A wave energy converter has been constructed and its function and operational characteristics have been thoroughly investigated and published. The wave energy converter was installed in March of 2006 approximately two kilometers off the Swedish west coast in the proximity of the town Lysekil. Since then the converter has been submerged at the research site for over two and a half years and in operation during three time periods for a total of 12 months, the latest being during five months of 2008. Throughout this time the generated electricity has been transmitted to shore and operational data has been recorded. The wave energy converter and its connected electrical system has been continually upgraded and each of the three operational periods have investigated more advanced stages in the progression toward grid connection. The wave energy system has faced the challenges of the ocean and initial results and insights have been reached, most important being that the overall wave energy concept has been verified. Experiments have shown that slowly varying power generation from ocean waves is possible.

Apart from the wave energy converter, three shorter studies have been performed. A sensor was designed for measuring the air gap width of the linear generator used in the wave energy converter. The sensor consists of an etched coil, a search coil, that functions passively through induction. Theory and experiment showed good agreement.

The Swedish west coast wave climate has been studied in detail. The study used eight years of wave data from 13 sites in the Skagerrak and Kattegatt, and data from a wave measurement buoy located at the wave energy research site. The study resulted in scatter diagrams, hundred year extreme wave estimations, and a mapping of the energy flux in the area. The average energy flux was found to be approximately 5.2 kW/m in the offshore Skagerrak, 2.8 kW/m in the near shore Skagerrak, and 2.4 kW/m in the Kattegat.

A method for evaluating renewable energy technologies in terms of economy and engineering solutions has been investigated. The match between the technologies and the fundamental physics of renewable energy sources can be given in terms of the technology’s utilization. It is argued that engineers should strive for a high utilization if competitive technologies are to be developed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Universitetsbiblioteket, 2008. 130 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 580
Keyword
wave power, wave energy converter, sea trials, ocean energy, linear generator, point absorber, search coil, wave climate, utilization
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-9404 (URN)978-91-554-7354-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-12-12, Polacksbackens aula, Lägerhyddsv. 2, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2012-11-09Bibliographically approved
3. Experimental results from the Lysekil Wave Power Research Site
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental results from the Lysekil Wave Power Research Site
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents how experimental results, from wave power research performed offshore at the Lysekil research site, were obtained. The data were used to verify theoretical models as well as evaluate the feasibility of wave power as a future sustainable energy source.

The first experiments carried out at the research site was the measurement of the force in a line where one end was connected to a buoy with a diameter of 3 m and the other end to a set of springs with limited stroke length. The system is exposed to high peak forces compared to average forces. The maximum measured force in the line, when the buoy motion is limited by a stiff stopper rope is ten times the average force in that particular sea state.

The experiment performed on the first wave energy converter tested at the Lysekil Research Site is described. The infrastructure of the site is presented where the central connection point is the measuring station. The key finding is that it is possible to transform the motions of ocean waves into electrical energy and distribute it to land.

Many wave energy converters must be interconnected if large amounts of energy are to be harvested from the waves. The first submerged substation intended for aggregation of energy from wave power converters is described, with focus on the measurement and control system placed inside the substation. During this experiment period the generators were equipped with many different sensors; these measurements are explained in the thesis.

The system that aggregates power from the studied wave energy converter is regularly exposed to peak power of up to 20 times the maximum average output from the converter.

Vertical and horizontal movement of the buoy has been measured in different ways. The result is that the vertical displacement of the buoy can be measured with a simple accelerometer circuit but it is much more complicated to measure the horizontal displacement. A special method for measuring the horizontal displacement has been implemented by measuring the strain in the enclosure and the force in the line.

Abstract [sv]

Den här avhandlingen berättar om hur experimenten vid Lysekils forskningsområde för vågkraft har utförts. Insamlade mätdata har använts för att verifiera teoretiska samband som modulerats vid Elektricitetslära, Uppsala universitet. De teoretiska och praktiska resultaten har visat på att vågkraft har förutsättningarna att implementeras som en hållbar framtida energikälla. Intressanta mätmetoder har utvecklas och påfrestningarna  på utrustningin och dess samband med medel effekten har studerats.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 101 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 957
Keyword
Wave power, Lysekil, Marine Substation, Offshore measurement, strain gauge, lateral force, Invlination and azimuth angles, Wave energy converter, Temperature measurements, Inverter, Energy, Control sustem, CompactRIO, Vågkraft, Mätteknik, Styrsystem, Lysekil
National Category
Marine Engineering Energy Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Ocean and River Engineering Control Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179098 (URN)978-91-554-8433-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-09-28, Polhem Å 10134, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Lysekils projektet
Funder
Swedish Research Council, grant no. 621-2009-3417
Available from: 2012-09-05 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2013-01-22

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Waters, RafaelSvensson, OlleIsberg, JanLeijon, Mats

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