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Relaxation of selective constraint on dog mitochondrial DNA following domestication
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology. (Conservation Genetics)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology. (Molecular Evolution)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology. (Conservation Genetics)
2006 (English)In: Genome Research, ISSN 1088-9051, E-ISSN 1549-5469, Vol. 16, no 8, 990-994 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The domestication of dogs caused a dramatic change in their way of life compared with that of their ancestor, the gray wolf. We hypothesize that this new life style changed the selective forces that acted upon the species, which in turn had an effect on the dog's genome. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA genome in 14 dogs, six wolves, and three coyotes. Here we show that dogs have accumulated nonsynonymous changes in mitochondrial genes at a faster rate than wolves, leading to elevated levels of variation in their proteins. This suggests that a major consequence of domestication in dogs was a general relaxation of selective constraint on their mitochondrial genome. If this change also affected other parts of the dog genome, it could have facilitated the generation of novel functional genetic diversity. This diversity could thus have contributed raw material upon which artificial selection has shaped modern breeds and may therefore be an important source of the extreme phenotypic variation present in modern-day dogs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 16, no 8, 990-994 p.
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95703DOI: 10.1101/gr.5117706ISI: 000239441400005PubMedID: 16809672OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-95703DiVA: diva2:170018
Available from: 2007-04-12 Created: 2007-04-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Consequences of the Domestication of Man’s Best Friend, The Dog
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consequences of the Domestication of Man’s Best Friend, The Dog
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The dog was the first animal to be domesticated and the process started at least 15 000 years ago. Today it is the most morphologically diverse mammal, with a huge variation in size and shape. Dogs have always been useful to humans in several ways, from being a food source, hunting companion, guard, social companion and lately also a model for scientific research.

This thesis describes some of the changes that have occurred in the dog’s genome, both during the domestication process and later through breed creation. To give a more comprehensive view, three genetic systems were studied: maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA, paternally inherited Y chromosome and biparental autosomal chromosomes. I also sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes to view the effect new living conditions might have had on dogs’ genes after domestication. Finally, knowledge of the genetic structure in purebred dogs was used to test analytic methods usable in other species or in natural populations where little information is available.

The domestication process appears to have caused a relaxation of the selective constraint in the mitochondrial genome, leading to a faster rate of accumulation of nonsynonymous changes in the mitochondrial genes. Later, the process of breed creation resulted in genetically separated breed groups. Breeds are a result from an unequal contribution of males and females with only a few popular sires contributing and a larger amount of dams. However, modern breeder preferences might lead to disruptive selective forces within breeds, which can result in additional fragmentation of breeds. The increase in linkage disequilibrium that this represents increases the value of purebred dogs as model organisms for the identification and mapping of diseases and traits. Purebred dogs’ potential for these kinds of studies will probably increase the more we know about the dog’s genome.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2007. 64 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 289
Keyword
Molecular genetics, mitochondrial genome, Y chromosome, microsatellites, disruptive selection, breed structure, whole genome amplification, gene flow, linkage disequilibrium, Canis familiaris, Canis lupus, Genetik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-7799 (URN)978-91-554-6854-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-05-03, Zootissalen, Zoologisk institution, EBC, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
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Available from: 2007-04-12 Created: 2007-04-12 Last updated: 2009-03-31Bibliographically approved

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Björnerfeldt, SusanneWebster, Matthew T.Vilà, Carles

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