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McLafferty rearrangement of the radical cations of butanal and 3-fluorobutanal: A theoretical investigation of the concerted and stepwise mechanisms
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Quantum Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Quantum Chemistry.
2008 (English)In: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987X, Vol. 29, no 3, 392-406 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The stepwise and concerted pathways for the McLafferty rearrangement of the radical cations of butanal (Bu+) and 3-fluorobutanal (3F-Bu+) are investigated with density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio methods in conjunction with the 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. A concerted transition structure (TS) for Bu+ (H), is located with a Gibbs barrier height of 37.7 kcal/mol as computed with CCSD(T)//BHandHLYP. Three pathways for the stepwise rearrangement of Bu+ have been located, which are all found to involve different complexes. The barrier height for the H, transfer is found to be 2.2 kcal/mol, while the two most favorable TSs for the C-alpha-C-beta cleavage are located 8.9 and 9.2 kcal/mol higher. The energies of the 3F-Bu+ system have been calculated with the promising hybrid meta-GGA MPWKCIS1K functional of DFT. Interestingly, the fluorine substitution yields a barrier height of only 20.5 kcal/mol for the concerted TS, (3F-H). A smaller computed dipole moment, 12.1 D, for (3F-H) compared with 103.2 D for (H) might explain the stabilization of the substituted TS. The H. transfer, with a barrier height of 4.9 kcal/mol, is found to be rate-determining for the stepwise McLafferty rearrangement of 3F-Bu+, in contrast to the unsubstituted case. By inspection of the spin and charge distributions of the stationary points, it is noted that the bond cleavages in the concerted rearrangements are mainly of heterolytic nature, while those in the stepwise channels are found to be homolytic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 29, no 3, 392-406 p.
Keyword [en]
fragmentation, substitution effects, addition complex, electron spin resonance, hydrogen bonding
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96118DOI: 10.1002/jcc.20797ISI: 000252864500008PubMedID: 17607719OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-96118DiVA: diva2:170587
Available from: 2007-09-04 Created: 2007-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Quantum Chemical Studies of Radical Cation Rearrangement, Radical Carbonylation, and Homolytic Substitution Reactions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantum Chemical Studies of Radical Cation Rearrangement, Radical Carbonylation, and Homolytic Substitution Reactions
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Quantum chemical calculations have been performed to investigate radical cation rearrangement, radical carbonylation, and homolytic substitution reactions of organic molecules.

The rearrangement of the bicyclopropylidiene radical cation to the tetramethyleneethane radical cation is predicted to proceed with stepwise disrotatory opening of the two rings. Each ring opening is found to be combined with a striking pyramidalization of a carbon atom in the central bond.

The isomerization of the norbornadiene radical cation to the cycloheptatriene radical cation (CHT.+), initialized by opening of a bridgehead–methylene bond, is investigated. The most favorable path involves concerted rearrangement to the norcaradiene radical cation followed by ring opening to CHT.+. The barrier of this channel is found to be significantly reduced upon substitution of the methylene group with C(CH3)2.

Stepwise mechanisms are predicted to be favored over concerted isomerization for the McLafferty rearrangement of the radical cations of butanal and 3-fluorobutanal. The barrier for the concerted rearrangement is found to be lowered by 17.2 kcal/mol upon substitution, a result which is rationalized by the calculated dipole moments and atomic charges.

Recent experiments showed that photoinitiated carbonylation of alkyl iodides with [11C]carbon monoxide may be significantly enhanced by using small amounts of ketones that have nπ* character of their excited triplet state. DFT calculations show the feasibility of an atom transfer type mechanism, proposed to explain these observations. Moreover, the computational results rationalize the observed differences in yield when using various alcohol solvents.

Finally, following photolysis of methyliodide, recent electron spin resonance spectroscopy experiments demonstrated that the SH2 reaction CD3 + SiD3CH3 → CD3SiD3 + CH3 proceeds with high selectivity over the energetically more favorable D abstraction. The role of geometrical effects, especially the formation of prereactive complexes between methylsilane and methyliodide is studied, and a plausible explanation for the experimentally observed paradox is presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2007. 93 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 330
Keyword
Quantum chemistry, quantum chemistry, coupled-cluster, density functional theory, meta-GGA, reaction mechanism, potential energy surface, isomerization, fragmentation, dissociation, condensation, addition, SH2, hydrogen abstraction, iodine atom transfer, complex, weakly interacting system, hyperfine coupling constant, Kvantkemi
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8178 (URN)978-91-554-6949-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-09-26, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-09-04 Created: 2007-09-04 Last updated: 2011-04-08Bibliographically approved

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