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Momentum fluxes and wind gradients in the marine boundary layer: a multi platform study
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
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2008 (English)In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, Vol. 13, no 6, 475-502 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During five autumn weeks, measurements of turbulent fluxes were obtained in the Baltic Sea at three levels on a 30-m tower and two levels on an ASIS buoy 4 km from the tower together with profiles of wind and temperature. Wave data and SST were obtained from ASIS. In the mean, momentum fluxes measured on the tower and on ASIS during onshore winds agree closely. Dimensionless wind gradients phi(m)(z/L) for (i) stable conditions are linear in z/L (L is the Obukhov length); (ii) unstable, growing sea conditions are much smaller than predicted by 'standard' equations, due to an indirect effect of the boundary layer height. Individual wind profiles extrapolated from ASIS to tower by integration of phi(m)(z/L) deviate by about 0.5 m s(-1) from measured values, but corresponding mean profiles agree well for all levels from 1.18 m to 30 m. This random variation in the wind field is shown to be related to inherent dynamics of the atmospheric surface layer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 13, no 6, 475-502 p.
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96140ISI: 000262398700001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-96140DiVA: diva2:170616
Available from: 2007-09-04 Created: 2007-09-04 Last updated: 2013-05-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fluxes of Sensible and Latent Heat and Carbon Dioxide in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluxes of Sensible and Latent Heat and Carbon Dioxide in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Oceans cover about 70% of the earth’s surface. They are the largest source of the atmospheric water vapour and act as enormous heat reservoirs. Thus in order to predict the future weather and climate it is of great importance to understand the processes governing the exchange of water vapour and heat between the ocean and atmosphere. This exchange is to a large extent mediated by turbulent eddies. Current numerical climate and weather forecast models are unable to resolve the turbulence, which means that the turbulent exchange needs to be simplified by using parameterizations.

Tower based measurements at the Östergarnsholm Island in the Baltic Sea have been used to study the air-sea turbulent exchange of latent and sensible heat and the heat flux parameterizations. Although the measurements are made at an island, data obtained at this site is shown to represent open ocean conditions during most situations for winds coming from the east-south sector. It is found that during conditions with small air-sea temperature differences and wind speeds above 10 m s-1, the structure of the turbulence is re-organized. Drier and colder air from aloft is transported to the surface by detached eddies, which considerably enhance the turbulent heat fluxes. The fluxes where observed to be much larger than predicted by current state-of-the-art parameterizations. The turbulence regime during these conditions is termed the Unstable Very Close to Neutral Regime, the UVCN-regime.

The global increase of the latent and sensible heat fluxes due to the UVCN-regime is calculated to 2.4 W m-2 and 0.8 W m-2 respectively. This is comparable to the current increase of the radiative forcing due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, reported in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change fourth assessment report (IPCC AR4). Thus the UVCN-effect could have a significant influence when predicting the future weather and climate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2007. 44 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 334
Meteorology, Sensible heat flux, Latent heat flux, Carbon dioxide, Turbulent exchange, Global heat fluxes, Marine boundary layer, Air-sea interaction, Meteorologi
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8184 (URN)978-91-554-6954-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-09-28, Axel Hamergssalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00
Available from: 2007-09-04 Created: 2007-09-04Bibliographically approved

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Högström, UlfSahlée, ErikSmedman, Ann-SofiJohansson, CeciliaRutgersson, Anna
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