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Effects of 17α-ethynylestradiol on EROD activity, spiggin and vitellogenin in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
2007 (English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 83, no 1, 33-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has quantifiable biomarkers of exposure to estrogens (vitellogenin), androgens (spiggin) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (EROD activity) and is therefore a promising test species for biomonitoring of reprotoxic chemicals in aquatic environments. In this study we evaluated the effects of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) on EROD activity, induction of vitellogenin and spiggin, hepatosomatic index (HSI), ovarian somatic index (OSI) and nephrosomatic index (NSI). Adult male and female three-spined sticklebacks were exposed to concentrations of 0–170 ng EE2/l (measured concentrations) in a flow-through system for 21 days. Exposure to 170 ng EE2/l resulted in a significant 8- and 9-fold induction of gill EROD activity in males and females, respectively. In livers, EROD activity expressed in relation to microsomal protein content was suppressed due to a significant increase in microsomal protein content. Hepatic EROD activity per se expressed as picomol/min was not affected by exposure to EE2. The lowest observed effect concentration for induction of vitellogenin in males was 53.7 ng EE2/l. In females, vitellogenin levels were significantly higher in those exposed to170 ng EE2/l compared to controls. Spiggin production was significantly inhibited and NSI lower in males exposed to 170 ng EE2/l. In both females and males LSI was significantly higher in fish exposed to 170 ng EE2/l than in controls. In females exposed to 170 ng EE2/l, OSI was significantly lower and NSI higher than controls. The observed results from this study show that a synthetic estrogen can affect the well-known biomarker of exposure for dioxin-like compounds, EROD activity, and further that this response can differ between tissues. These findings are important for interpretation of biomonitoring data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 83, no 1, 33-42 p.
Keyword [en]
EROD activity, Spiggin, Vitellogenin, Three-spined stickleback, 17α-ethynylestradiol
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96247DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2007.03.008ISI: 000246952400004PubMedID: 17445917OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-96247DiVA: diva2:170755
Available from: 2007-09-28 Created: 2007-09-28 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Evaluation of Biomarker Responses in Fish: with Special Emphasis on Gill EROD Activity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Biomarker Responses in Fish: with Special Emphasis on Gill EROD Activity
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Many chemicals present in the aquatic environment can interfere with physiological functions in fish. Exposure to chemicals can be revealed by the use of biomarkers. Induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity is a commonly used biomarker for exposure to CYP1A inducers such as dioxins and polyaromatic hyrdrocarbons. Vitellogenin is a frequently used biomarker for estrogenic compounds in various fish species whereas a biomarker for androgens, spiggin, is only found in sticklebacks. The main objectives of this thesis were to evaluate gill EROD activity as a biomarker and the three-spined stickleback as a model species in ecotoxicological studies.

EROD activities were measured in gill, liver and kidney in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) caged in urban areas in Sweden. EROD induction was most pronounced in the gill. Also in fish caged at reference sites, with an expected low level of known CYP1A inducers, a marked gill EROD induction was found. One suggested inducer in rural waters is humic substances (HS). To evaluate the EROD-inducing capacity of HS, three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were exposed to HS of natural or synthetic origin. Both kinds of HS caused significant EROD induction. Gill EROD activities were also induced in sticklebacks exposed to ethynylestradiol (EE2) and β-naphthoflavone (βNF), alone and in combinations. Production of vitellogenin was induced in sticklebacks exposed to ≥50 ng EE2/l and a significant decrease in spiggin production was observed in individuals exposed to 170 ng EE2/l.

Results from this thesis further strengthen the contention that gill EROD activity is a very sensitive biomarker for CYP1A inducers and that the stickleback is a suitable biomonitoring species, especially for exposure to CYP1A inducers. The finding that not only classical CYP1A inducers but also HS and high EE2 concentrations stimulate gill EROD activity is of significance for the interpretation of biomonitoring data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2007. 59 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 345
Keyword
Biology, three-spined stickleback, biomarker, EROD, ethynylestradiol, gill, vitellogenin, spiggin, CYP1A inducers, humic substances, sperm quality, biomonitoring, Biologi
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8222 (URN)978-91-554-6975-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-10-19, Lindahlsalen, EBC, Norbyvägen 18A, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-09-28 Created: 2007-09-28 Last updated: 2011-01-27Bibliographically approved

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