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Conformationally Constrained 2'-N,4'-C-Ethylene-Bridged Thymidine (Aza-ENA-T): Synthesis, Structure, Physical, and Biochemical Studies of Aza-ENA-T-Modified Oligonucleotides
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Bioorganic Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Bioorganic Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Bioorganic Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Bioorganic Chemistry.
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2006 (English)In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 128, no 47, 15173-15187 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The 2'-deoxy-2'-N,4'-C-ethylene-bridged thymidine (aza-ENA-T) has been synthesized using a key cyclization step involving 2'-ara-trifluoromethylsufonyl-4'-cyanomethylene 11 to give a pair of 3',5'-bis-OBn- protected diastereomerically pure aza-ENA-Ts (12a and 12b) with the fused piperidino skeleton in the chair conformation, whereas the pentofuranosyl moiety is locked in the North-type conformation (7 < P < 27 degrees, 44 degrees < phi(m) < 52 degrees). The origin of the chirality of two diastereomerically pure aza-ENA-Ts was found to be due to the endocyclic chiral 2'-nitrogen, which has axial N-H in 12b and equatorial N-H in 12a. The latter is thermodynamically preferred, while the former is kinetically preferred with E-a 25.4 kcal mol(-1), which is thus far the highest observed inversion barrier at pyramidal N-H in the bicyclic amines. The 5'-O-DMTr-aza-ENA-T-3'-phosphoramidite was employed for solid-phase synthesis to give four different singly modified 15-mer antisense oligonucleotides (AONs). Their AON/RNA duplexes showed a T m increase of 2.5-4 degrees C per modification, depending upon the modification site in the AON. The relative rates of the RNase H1 cleavage of the aza-ENA-T-modified AON/RNA heteroduplexes were very comparable to that of the native counterpart, but the RNA cleavage sites of the modified AON/RNA were found to be very different. The aza-ENA-T modifications also made the AONs very resistant to 3' degradation (stable over 48 h) in the blood serum compared to the unmodified AON (fully degraded in 4 h). Thus, the aza-ENA-T modification in the AON fulfilled three important antisense criteria, compared to the native: (i) improved RNA target affinity, (ii) comparable RNase H cleavage rate, and (iii) higher blood serum stability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 128, no 47, 15173-15187 p.
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96272DOI: 10.1021/ja0634977ISI: 000242216100046PubMedID: 17117869OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-96272DiVA: diva2:170791
Available from: 2007-10-16 Created: 2007-10-16 Last updated: 2017-12-14
In thesis
1. Structural and Biophysical Studies of Nucleic Acids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural and Biophysical Studies of Nucleic Acids
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is based on six research publications concerned with (i) study of the molecular structures and dynamics of modified nucleosides; (ii) investigation of the effect of incorporation of modified nucleosides on the structure of DNA; (iii) examination of the effect of the sugar modifications on the pseudo-aromatic properties (pKa) of the nucleobases; (iv) analysis of the effect of the CH-π interactions on the relative stability of the DNA-RNA hybrid duplexes. The structural stability of the nucleic acids as well as their behavior in molecular recognition is dominated by hydrogen bonding and stacking interactions beside other non-covalent interactions. Naturally occurring nucleosides are found to have some specific functions. Modifications of nucleic acids, followed by studies of the resulting structural, chemical and functional changes, contribute to an understanding of their role in various biochemical processes, such as catalysis or gene silencing. In papers I-III, analysis of the structures of modified thymidine nucleosides with 1′,2′-(oxetane or azetidine) and 2′,4′-(LNA, 2′-amino LNA, ENA, and Aza-ENA) conformationally constrained sugar moieties, and dynamics of the modified nucleosides by NMR, ab initio, and molecular dynamics simulations are discussed. Based on whether the modification leads to 1′,2′- or 2′,4′- constrained sugar moieties, it is found that they fall into two distinct categories characterized by their respective internal dynamics of the glycosidic and backbone torsions as well as by their characteristic NE-type (P = 37° ± 27°, Φm = 25° ± 18°) for 1′,2′-constrained nucleosides, and N-type (P = 19° ± 8°, Φm = 48° ± 4°) for 2′,4′-constrained systems, respectively. Moreover, each group has different conformational hyperspace accessible. The effect of the incorporation of 1′,2′-oxetane locked thymidine nucleoside on the structure and dynamics of the Dickerson-Drew dodecamer, d(CGCGAATTCGCG)2, determined by NMR, is discussed in the paper IV. It shows that the incorporation of oxetane locked T into the dodecamer has made local structural deformations and perturbation in base pairing, where the modification is included. The modulations of physico-chemical properties of the nucleobases in nucleotides by the C2′-modification of the sugar (paper V), 5′-phosphate group, and the effect of constrained pentofuranosyl moiety (sugar, paper III) have been studied. CH-π interactions between the methyl group of thymidine and the neighboring aromatic nucleobase are shown to increase the relative stability of the DNA-RNA hybrid duplexes over the isosequential RNA-DNA duplexes or vice versa (paper VI).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2007. 60 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 349
Keyword
Organic chemistry, nucleic acids, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, molecular dynamics, sugar modified nucleosides, pKa, Organisk kemi
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8245 (URN)978-91-554-6982-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-11-06, 113a, B7, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:30
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-10-16 Created: 2007-10-16Bibliographically approved
2. Targeting RNA by the Antisense Approach and a Close Look at RNA Cleavage Reaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Targeting RNA by the Antisense Approach and a Close Look at RNA Cleavage Reaction
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis summarizes the results of studies on two aspects of nucleic acids. Chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) have been evaluated with regards to their suitability for mRNA targeting in an antisense approach (Paper I – III). The chemically modified nucleotidic units 2'-O-Me-T, 2'-O-MOE-T, oxetane-T, LNA-T, azetidine-T, aza-ENA-T, carbocyclic-ENA-T and carbocyclic-LNA-T were incorporated into 15-mer AONs and targeted against a 15-mer RNA chosen from the coding region of SV-40 large T antigen. The comparative study showed that a single modified nucleotide in the AON with North-East locked sugar (oxetane-T and azetidine-T) lowered the affinity for the complementary RNA whereas North locked sugars (LNA-T, aza-ENA-T, carbocyclic-ENA-T, and carbocyclic-LNA-T) significantly improved the affinity. A comparative RNase H digestion study showed that modifications of the same type (North-East type or North type) in different sequences gave rise to similar cleavage patterns. Determination of the Michaelis-Menten parameters by kinetic experiments showed that the modified AONs recruit RNase H resulting in enhanced turnover numbers (kcat) although with weaker enzyme-substrate binding (1/Km) compared to the unmodified AON. The modified AONs were also evaluated with regards to resistance towards snake venom phosphodiesterase and human serum to estimate their stability toward exonucleases. The aza-ENA-T and carbocyclic-ENA-T modified AONs showed improved stability compared to all other modified AONs. In general, the modified AONs with North type nucleotides (except LNA-T) were found to be superior to the North-East type as they showed improved target affinity, comparable RNase H recruitment capability and improved exonuclease stability.

The second aspect studied in this thesis is based on physicochemical studies of short RNA molecules utilizing NMR based pH titration and alkaline hydrolysis reactions (Paper IV – V). The NMR based (1H and 31P) pH titration studies revealed the effect of guaninyl ion formation, propagated electrostatically through a single stranded chain in a sequence dependent manner. The non-identical electronic character of the internucleotidic phosphodiesters was further verified by alkaline hydrolysis experiments. The internucleotidic phosphodiesters, which were influenced by guaninyl ion formation, were hydrolyzed at a faster rate than those sequences where such guaninyl ion formation was prevented by replacing G with N1-Me-G.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2007. 58 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 355
Keyword
Organic chemistry, mRNA targeting, antisense oligonucleotides, target affinity, RNase H, Michaelis-Menten kinetics, exo-nuclease stability, NMR, pH titration, alkaline hydrolysis, Organisk kemi
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8272 (URN)978-91-554-6995-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-11-08, B22, BMC, Box 576, SE-75123, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-10-18 Created: 2007-10-18 Last updated: 2012-08-03Bibliographically approved

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Varghese, Oommen P.Plashkevych, Oleksandr

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