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Five- and Six-Membered Conformationally Locked 2‘,4‘-Carbocyclic ribo-Thymidines: Synthesis, Structure, and Biochemical Studies
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Bioorganic Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Bioorganic Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Bioorganic Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Bioorganic Chemistry.
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2007 (English)In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 129, no 26, 8362-8379 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two unusual reactions involving the 5-hexenyl or the 6-heptenyl radical cyclization of a distant double bond at C4' and the radical center at C2' of the ribofuranose ring of thymidine have been used as key steps to synthesize North-type conformationally constrained cis-fused bicyclic five-membered and six-membered carbocyclic analogues of LNA (carbocyclic-LNA-T) and ENA (carbocyclic-ENA-T) in high yields. Their structures have been confirmed unambiguously by long range iH-13C NMR correlation (HMBC), TOCSY, COSY, and NOE experiments. The carbocyclic-LNA-T and carbocyclic-ENA-T were subsequently incorporated into the antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) to show that they enhance the Tm of the modified AON/RNA heteroduplexes by 3.5-5 °C and 1.5 °C/modification for carbocyclic-LNA-T and carbocyclic-ENA-T, respectively. Whereas the relative RNase H cleavage rates with carbocyclic-LNA-T, carbocyclic-ENA-T, aza-ENA-T, and LNA-T modified AON/RNA duplexes were found to be very similar to that of the native counterpart, irrespective of the type and the site modification in the AON strand, a single incorporation of carbocyclic-LNA and carbocyclic-ENA into AONs leads to very much more enhanced nuclease stability in the blood serum (stable >48 h) as compared to that of the native (fully degraded <3 h) and the LNA-modified AONs (fully degraded <9 h) and aza-ENA (≈85% stable in 48 h). Clearly, remarkably enhanced lifetimes of these carbocyclic-modified AONs in the blood serum may produce the highly desired pharmacokinetic properties because of their unique stability and consequently a net reduction of the required dosage. This unique quality as well as their efficient use as the AON in the RNase H-promoted cleavage of the target RNA makes our carbocyclic-LNA and carbocyclic-ENA modifications excellent candidates as potential antisense therapeutic agents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 129, no 26, 8362-8379 p.
National Category
Biological Sciences Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96273DOI: 10.1021/ja071106yISI: 000247563700050PubMedID: 17552524OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-96273DiVA: diva2:170792
Available from: 2007-10-16 Created: 2007-10-16 Last updated: 2015-05-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Structural and Biophysical Studies of Nucleic Acids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural and Biophysical Studies of Nucleic Acids
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is based on six research publications concerned with (i) study of the molecular structures and dynamics of modified nucleosides; (ii) investigation of the effect of incorporation of modified nucleosides on the structure of DNA; (iii) examination of the effect of the sugar modifications on the pseudo-aromatic properties (pKa) of the nucleobases; (iv) analysis of the effect of the CH-π interactions on the relative stability of the DNA-RNA hybrid duplexes. The structural stability of the nucleic acids as well as their behavior in molecular recognition is dominated by hydrogen bonding and stacking interactions beside other non-covalent interactions. Naturally occurring nucleosides are found to have some specific functions. Modifications of nucleic acids, followed by studies of the resulting structural, chemical and functional changes, contribute to an understanding of their role in various biochemical processes, such as catalysis or gene silencing. In papers I-III, analysis of the structures of modified thymidine nucleosides with 1′,2′-(oxetane or azetidine) and 2′,4′-(LNA, 2′-amino LNA, ENA, and Aza-ENA) conformationally constrained sugar moieties, and dynamics of the modified nucleosides by NMR, ab initio, and molecular dynamics simulations are discussed. Based on whether the modification leads to 1′,2′- or 2′,4′- constrained sugar moieties, it is found that they fall into two distinct categories characterized by their respective internal dynamics of the glycosidic and backbone torsions as well as by their characteristic NE-type (P = 37° ± 27°, Φm = 25° ± 18°) for 1′,2′-constrained nucleosides, and N-type (P = 19° ± 8°, Φm = 48° ± 4°) for 2′,4′-constrained systems, respectively. Moreover, each group has different conformational hyperspace accessible. The effect of the incorporation of 1′,2′-oxetane locked thymidine nucleoside on the structure and dynamics of the Dickerson-Drew dodecamer, d(CGCGAATTCGCG)2, determined by NMR, is discussed in the paper IV. It shows that the incorporation of oxetane locked T into the dodecamer has made local structural deformations and perturbation in base pairing, where the modification is included. The modulations of physico-chemical properties of the nucleobases in nucleotides by the C2′-modification of the sugar (paper V), 5′-phosphate group, and the effect of constrained pentofuranosyl moiety (sugar, paper III) have been studied. CH-π interactions between the methyl group of thymidine and the neighboring aromatic nucleobase are shown to increase the relative stability of the DNA-RNA hybrid duplexes over the isosequential RNA-DNA duplexes or vice versa (paper VI).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2007. 60 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 349
Keyword
Organic chemistry, nucleic acids, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, molecular dynamics, sugar modified nucleosides, pKa, Organisk kemi
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8245 (URN)978-91-554-6982-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-11-06, 113a, B7, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:30
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-10-16 Created: 2007-10-16Bibliographically approved
2. Targeting RNA by the Antisense Approach and a Close Look at RNA Cleavage Reaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Targeting RNA by the Antisense Approach and a Close Look at RNA Cleavage Reaction
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis summarizes the results of studies on two aspects of nucleic acids. Chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) have been evaluated with regards to their suitability for mRNA targeting in an antisense approach (Paper I – III). The chemically modified nucleotidic units 2'-O-Me-T, 2'-O-MOE-T, oxetane-T, LNA-T, azetidine-T, aza-ENA-T, carbocyclic-ENA-T and carbocyclic-LNA-T were incorporated into 15-mer AONs and targeted against a 15-mer RNA chosen from the coding region of SV-40 large T antigen. The comparative study showed that a single modified nucleotide in the AON with North-East locked sugar (oxetane-T and azetidine-T) lowered the affinity for the complementary RNA whereas North locked sugars (LNA-T, aza-ENA-T, carbocyclic-ENA-T, and carbocyclic-LNA-T) significantly improved the affinity. A comparative RNase H digestion study showed that modifications of the same type (North-East type or North type) in different sequences gave rise to similar cleavage patterns. Determination of the Michaelis-Menten parameters by kinetic experiments showed that the modified AONs recruit RNase H resulting in enhanced turnover numbers (kcat) although with weaker enzyme-substrate binding (1/Km) compared to the unmodified AON. The modified AONs were also evaluated with regards to resistance towards snake venom phosphodiesterase and human serum to estimate their stability toward exonucleases. The aza-ENA-T and carbocyclic-ENA-T modified AONs showed improved stability compared to all other modified AONs. In general, the modified AONs with North type nucleotides (except LNA-T) were found to be superior to the North-East type as they showed improved target affinity, comparable RNase H recruitment capability and improved exonuclease stability.

The second aspect studied in this thesis is based on physicochemical studies of short RNA molecules utilizing NMR based pH titration and alkaline hydrolysis reactions (Paper IV – V). The NMR based (1H and 31P) pH titration studies revealed the effect of guaninyl ion formation, propagated electrostatically through a single stranded chain in a sequence dependent manner. The non-identical electronic character of the internucleotidic phosphodiesters was further verified by alkaline hydrolysis experiments. The internucleotidic phosphodiesters, which were influenced by guaninyl ion formation, were hydrolyzed at a faster rate than those sequences where such guaninyl ion formation was prevented by replacing G with N1-Me-G.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2007. 58 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 355
Keyword
Organic chemistry, mRNA targeting, antisense oligonucleotides, target affinity, RNase H, Michaelis-Menten kinetics, exo-nuclease stability, NMR, pH titration, alkaline hydrolysis, Organisk kemi
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8272 (URN)978-91-554-6995-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-11-08, B22, BMC, Box 576, SE-75123, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-10-18 Created: 2007-10-18 Last updated: 2012-08-03Bibliographically approved

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Plashkevych, Oleksandr

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