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Cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections in children in a 13-year material; experience of the addition of routine anaerobic cultures and comparision of the clinical presentation of Propionibacterium acne with that caused by other bacteria
Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
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In: Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN 0022-3085Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96387OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-96387DiVA: diva2:170945
Available from: 2007-11-14 Created: 2007-11-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts in Children: Technical Considerations and Treatment of Certain Complications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts in Children: Technical Considerations and Treatment of Certain Complications
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ventriculo-peritoneal shunting is the most commonly used method for the treatment of paediatric hydrocephalus. Despite improved shunts and surgical techniques there are still complications. This retrospective study focuses on diagnoses and treatment of shunt malfunction and infections. Cost/benefit of using an adjustable shunt was assessed. Two adjustable cerebrospinal fluid shunts and their compatible antisiphon devices were compared in-vitro.

In 21 of 46 children the standard shunt was changed to an adjustable one due to over-drainage. Adjustment of the shunt was performed in 73% of the children thereby avoiding surgery in several cases. This was a financial advantage.

Ascites or an abdominal pseudocyst without infection was detected in eight children due to resorption difficulties. A ventriculo-atrial shunt was inserted for a period of time. In three children it could successfully be reverted to a ventriculo-peritoneal.

In six children papilloedema was the only sign of shunt dysfunction. At revision the intracranial pressure ranged from 25 to 52 cm H2O. Fundoscopic examination in children older than 8 years may detect symptomless shunt malfunction.

During a 13-year period 39 shunt infections were diagnosed. Skin bacteria were found in 80%. Prolonged and anaerobic cultures increased the detection rate by more than one third. The intraventricular infections were treated with intraventricular and systemic antibiotics resulting in quick sterilisation. No relapses were encountered. In five older children with distal catheter infection Propionibacterium acne was found. These were treated with intravenous antibiotics and exchanging of the shunt system.

Strata NSCTM and Codman HakimTM worked according to the manufacturers except at the lowest setting. The resistance was below and in the lower range of the physiological one respectively. The antisiphon device of Strata shunt had to be placed in line with shunt to function properly.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2007. 63 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 289
Surgery, Hydrocephalus, papilloedema, abdominal cyst, cerebrospinal fluid shunt, shunt infection, intraventricular antibiotic instillation, intraventricular antibiotic concentrations, in-vitro testing, antisiphon device, Kirurgi
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8295 (URN)978-91-554-7010-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-12-08, Rosénsalen, Akademiska Barnsjukhuset, Ingång 95, Uppsala, 13:15
Available from: 2007-11-14 Created: 2007-11-14 Last updated: 2011-01-21Bibliographically approved

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