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Effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on estimated desaturase activities during a controlled dietary intervention
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. (Clinical Nutrition)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. (Clinical Nutrition)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. (Clinical Nutrition)
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2008 (English)In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 18, no 10, 683-690 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and aims

Direct measurement of desaturase activities are difficult to obtain in humans. Consequently, surrogate measures of desaturase activity (estimated desaturase activities) have been frequently used in observational studies, and estimated Δ9- (or stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD)), Δ6- and Δ5-desaturase activities have been associated with cardiometabolic disease. Data on how the markers of desaturase activities are modified by changes in dietary fat quality are lacking and therefore warrant examination.

Methods and results

In a two-period (three weeks) strictly controlled cross-over study, 20 subjects (six women and 14 men) consumed a diet high in saturated fat (SAT-diet) and a rapeseed oil diet (RO-diet), rich in oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA). Estimated desaturase activities were calculated as precursor to product FA ratios in serum cholesteryl esters and phospholipids. The estimated SCD [16:1 n-7/16:0] and Δ6-desaturase [20:3 n-6/18:2 n-6] was significantly higher while Δ5-desaturase [20:4 n-6/20:3 n-6] was significantly lower in the SAT-diet (P<0.001 for all), compared to the RO-diet. The serum proportions of palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic and dihomo-γ-linolenic acids were significantly higher in the SAT-diet while the proportions of LA and ALA were significantly higher in the RO-diet.

Conclusion

This is the first study to demonstrate that surrogate measures of desaturase activities change as a consequence of an alteration in dietary fat quality. Both the [16:1/16:0]-ratio and 16:1 seem to reflect changes in saturated fat intake and may be useful markers of saturated fat intake in Western countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 18, no 10, 683-690 p.
Keyword [en]
Fatty acid composition, Stearoyl-CoA-desaturase, Δ6-Desaturase, Δ5-Desaturase, Dietary fat quality, Estimated desaturase activities
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96456DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2007.11.002ISI: 000262609500007PubMedID: 18367385OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-96456DiVA: diva2:171033
Available from: 2007-11-16 Created: 2007-11-16 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fatty Acid Desaturase Activities in Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease: Special Reference to Stearoyl-CoA-Desaturase and Biomarkers of Dietary Fat
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatty Acid Desaturase Activities in Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease: Special Reference to Stearoyl-CoA-Desaturase and Biomarkers of Dietary Fat
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases have been suggested to be influenced more by the quality than the amount of dietary fat. The FA composition of serum lipids may be used as biomarkers of dietary fat quality. FAs can, however, also be endogenously synthesized by lipogenic enzymes such as elongases and desaturases. Three desaturases are important in humans: Stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD), ∆6-desaturase (D6D) and ∆5-desaturase (D5D) and surrogate measures of desaturase activities can be estimated as product-to-precursor FA ratios.

In this thesis, we demonstrated that high SCD, D6D and low D5D estimated activities predicted MetS 20 years later, as well as cardiovascular and total mortality during a maximum of 33.7 years. The relation between D5D and MetS was independent of lifestyle and BMI, while the relation between SCD, D6D and MetS was confounded by BMI. Serum proportions of palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1) and dihomo-γ-linoleic acids were higher and the serum proportion of linoleic acid (LA) lower at baseline in those individuals who developed MetS. Further, LA was inversely related to mortality, while palmitic, palmitoleic and dihomo-γ-linoleic acids were directly associated with mortality. We also demonstrated that a diet rich in saturated fat “induced” a similar serum FA pattern (including estimated desaturase activities) that was associated with MetS, cardiovascular disease and mortality. We also propose that the SCD ratio [16:1/16:0] might be a novel and useful marker of dietary saturated fat, at least in Western high-fat diets. Finally, genetic variations in the human SCD1 gene were linked to obesity and insulin sensitivity, results that agree with data in SCD1 deficient mice.

This thesis suggests that dietary fat quality and endogenous desaturation may play a role in the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and the results support current dietary guidelines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2007. 77 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 292
Keyword
Nutrition, Fatty acids, Dietary fat, Biomarker, Metabolic Syndrome, Mortality, Obesity, Insulin Sensitivity, Epidemiology, Estimated desaturase activities, Stearoyl-CoA-desaturase, delta-6-desaturase, delta-5-desaturase, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, Dietary Intervention, Rapeseed oil, Saturated fat, SCD1, Näringslära
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8312 (URN)978-91-554-7025-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-12-07, IV, Universitetshuset, Uppsala, 09:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-11-16 Created: 2007-11-16Bibliographically approved

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