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Evaluating 2D and 3D Visualizations of Spatiotemporal Information
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Centre for Image Analysis. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
2010 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, ISSN 1544-3558, Vol. 7, no 3, 19:1-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 7, no 3, 19:1-23 p.
National Category
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems) Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96635DOI: 10.1145/1773965.1773970ISI: 000279361800005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-96635DiVA: diva2:171275
Available from: 2008-01-11 Created: 2008-01-11 Last updated: 2011-02-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Collaborative Visualization: Designing and evaluating systems for co-located work
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collaborative Visualization: Designing and evaluating systems for co-located work
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis investigates new ways of using information visualization to support collaboration in co-located work. To study this phenomenon, Multiple Viewer Display Environments (MVDEs) with independent views have been applied to present information such that all viewers at the same time and in the same display can see correct views of 3D models, see correctly oriented text and see different parts and aspects of information in each view. Several prototypes have been developed either as proof of new conceptual designs or to evaluate particular research questions. These prototypes have been used to investigate general properties that apply to co-located collaborative visualizations.

A prototype system to keep track of the viewpoints and information in the independent views was implemented on MVDE hardware to support discussions on future command and control environments and to provide the necessary framework for conducting empirical studies (Paper II). Another prototype, the in situ tomographic display, was developed to support presentation of spatial 3D data (e.g., temperature or airflow) in 2D views in situ with working environments (Paper III). In addition to the visualization systems, a technique for high precision pen-based interaction in rear-projection display environments - the PixelActiveSurface – was developed (Papers IV and V).

The empirical studies evaluate how new forms of visualization in MVDEs with independent views affect the way information is perceived and can be shared in collaboration. The conclusion is that multiple independent views can provide more effective and efficient visualization when the following conditions are met: text is oriented towards the viewer (Paper VI), different aspects of information are coordinated between different views of the same display (Paper VIII) and correct views of 3D models are used to compare ordinal information and relations in spatial data (Paper VII). However, for the techniques to support co-located work efficiently, it is necessary that the type of work and the task to be solved are first properly analyzed and understood (Papers VII and IX).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2008. 70 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 385
Keyword
Visualization, Human-Computer Interaction, Collaboration, Co-located Visualization, Computer Supported Cooperative Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8405 (URN)978-91-554-7066-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-02-01, 1311, MIC, Polacksbacken, Uppsala, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-01-11 Created: 2008-01-11 Last updated: 2011-02-17Bibliographically approved
2. Visualizing Dynamics –The Perception of Spatiotemporal Data in 2D and 3D
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visualizing Dynamics –The Perception of Spatiotemporal Data in 2D and 3D
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In many command and control situations the understanding of dynamic events is crucial. With today’s development of hard- and software architecture, we have the possibility to visualize data in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images. The aim of this thesis is therefore to investigate different approaches to visualizing dynamic events. The visualization techniques investigated include 2D animation and time representations as markings on a 2D map. In 3D the visualization technique investigated is the “space time-cube” A further aim is to study whether the Cue Probability Learning (CPL) paradigm can be used to evaluate visualizations.

By mapping time onto a spatial dimension, in the 2D visualization as lines with different densities and in 3D as height over the map, a simultaneous visualization of space and time is possible. The findings are that this mapping of time onto space is beneficial to users as compared with animations, but the two mapping techniques are not interchangeable. If a task requires judgments of metric spatial properties, a 2D visualization is more beneficial; however, if the task only requires judgments of more qualitative aspects, a 3D visualization is more beneficial.

When we look at a 3D visualization, we utilize different sources of depth information. These sources are always present and each defines either a 3D scene or a projection surface. By using these different sources of depth information wisely, a visualization can be created that efficiently shows relevant information to a user while requiring a minimal amount of specialized hardware.

Finally, the CPL paradigm seems to be a worthwhile option as an experimental paradigm in visualization experiments. One of the advantages of CPL is that novice users can be trained to be task experts in a controlled and time-efficient way.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2008. 81 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 42
Keyword
Människa-dator-interaktion, Human-Computer Interaction, Information Visualization, Usability, 2D, 3D, Cue Probability Learning, Space-time Cub, Människa-dator-interaktion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-9142 (URN)978-91-554-7247-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-09-12, Hörsal 2, Ekonomikum, Kyrkogårdsgatan 10, Uppsala, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-08-21 Created: 2008-08-21 Last updated: 2011-01-13Bibliographically approved

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Kjellin, AndreasWinkler Pettersson, LarsSeipel, StefanLind, Mats

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