The Significance of IgG Antibodies against Tissue Transglutaminase in Coeliac Disease
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Coeliac disease (CD) is a multifactorial disease of the small intestine. In genetically predisposed individuals the, ingestion of cereals leads to a remodulation of the mucosal architecture, and the production of autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG). The treatment is a lifelong gluten-free diet.
The diagnostic procedure relies on the examination of a small-bowel biopsy that displays villous atrophy. A spectrum of clinical manifestations is associated with CD, ranging from overt enteropathy to atypical and silent symptoms. Approximately 1% of the general population has CD, and the majority is undiagnosed. Although most patients with active CD can be detected by the assessment of elevated IgA-tTG, some patients lack these antibodies. Moreover, individuals with IgA-deficiency cannot be identified by means of IgA serology.
The aim of this thesis was to investigate the clinical utility of IgG-tTG for the detection and follow-up of subjects with active CD. The included studies showed that IgG-tTG was highly prevalent in IgA-deficient and IgA-competent patients with CD, whereas non-CD patients rarely had these antibodies. During a gluten-free diet, IgG-tTG decreased, demonstrating that IgG-tTG can be used to follow the patient’s adherence such a diet. Furthermore, 10% of healthy IgA deficient blood donors had elevated IgG-tTG, indicating that they had silent CD.
In IgA-competent subjects, high IgG-tTG levels correlated with a severe mode of CD and profound mucosal deterioration, suggesting that IgG-tTG might be involved in the disease progression. Moreover, we found that although a considerable percentage of IgA-competent patients lack IgG-tTG, the presence of these antibodies in conjunction with high levels of IgA-tTG was highly predictive of a severe small-intestine villous atrophy. It was also demonstrated that IgG-tTG normalisation coincided with clinical remission in IgA-competent CD patients on a gluten-free diet.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2008. , 56 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 307
Immunology, Coeliac disease, Tissue transglutaminase, Endomysium, IgG antibodies
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8424ISBN: 978-91-554-7078-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-8424DiVA: diva2:171348
2008-02-27, Rudbecksalen, Rudbeck Laboratory, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 20, Uppsala, 13:15
Lundin, Knut, MD.
Heyman, Birgitta, ProfessorHansson, Tony, Ph.D.
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