Clusters are finite ensembles of atoms or molecules with sizes in the nanometer regime (i.e. nanoparticles). This thesis present results on the geometric and electronic structure of homogeneous and heterogeneous combinations of atoms and molecules. The systems have been studied with synchrotron radiation and valence, core and Auger electron spectroscopic techniques.
The first theme of the thesis is that of mixed clusters. It is shown that by varying the cluster production technique both structures that are close to that predicted by equilibrium considerations can be attained as well as far from equilibrium structures.
Electronic processes following ionization constitute the second theme. The post-collision interaction phenomenon, energy exchange between the photo- and the Auger electrons, is shown to be different in clusters of argon, krypton and xenon. A model is proposed that takes polarization screening in the final state into account. This result is of general character and should be applicable to the analysis of core level photoelectron and Auger electron spectra of insulating and semi-conducting bulk materials as well.
Interatomic Coloumbic Decay is a process that can occur in the condensed phases of weakly bonded systems. Results on the time-scale of the process in Ne clusters and mixed Ar/Ne clusters are herein discussed, as well observations of resonant contributions to the process. In analogy to Auger vis-à-vis Resonant Auger it is found that to the ICD process there is a corresponding Resonant ICD process possible. This has later been observed in other systems and by theoretical calculations as well in subsequent works by other groups.
Delocalization of dicationic valence final states in the hydrogen bonded ammonia clusters and aqueous ammonia has also been investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy. With those results it was possible to assign a previously observed feature in the Auger electron spectrum of solid ammonia.