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Use of anabolic androgenic steroids at an outpatient substance abuse clinic in Stockholm, Sweden
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Forensic Medicine.
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(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96841OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-96841DiVA: diva2:171550
Available from: 2008-03-14 Created: 2008-03-14 Last updated: 2013-08-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Criminality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Criminality
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) have been associated with adverse psychiatric effects, aggression and violent behaviour. The use of them has spread to a larger subpopulation, and the use has been connected to different risk behaviours, such as use of other illicit substances and carrying a gun. Case reports tell about a connection between AAS use and violent crimes, including homicide. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the proposed connection between AAS and crime, focusing on violent crimes, and to inquire into whether this proposed connection between AAS and criminality is affected by other risk factors for criminal behaviour.

The first two studies of this thesis investigated the registered criminality of individuals testing positively for AAS, with individuals testing negatively serving as control groups. In the two last studies individuals at a clinic for substance abuse treatment (Paper III) and in a prison (Paper IV) were asked about their use of AAS, and their history was assessed using the Addiction Severity Index.

The main finding of Paper I was the development of criminal patterns over time, with a clear increase of the proportion of violent crimes and weapons offences seen only among the pure AAS users. In Paper II an increased risk for weapons offences among AAS users was reported. In Paper III an increased risk of having been prosecuted for violent crimes and of having been physically abused was seen among the AAS users. In Paper IV, the main finding was the close resemblance of users and non users.

In summary, this thesis have concluded that the violence previously reported as connected to use of AAS can, to a large extent, be accounted for by other risk factors. There seems, however, to be a connection between use of AAS and a heavy, more planned form of criminality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2008. 47 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 318
Psychiatry, Anabolic steroids, Violence, Crime, Substance abuse, Psykiatri
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8508 (URN)978-91-554-7118-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-04-04, Hörsalen, ing. D1, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 17, Uppsala, 09:15
Available from: 2008-03-14 Created: 2008-03-14Bibliographically approved

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