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Thin films of Cu2Sb and Cu9Sb2 as anode materials in Li-ion batteries
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
2008 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, Vol. 53, no 24, 7226-7234 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thin Cu2Sb films have been prepared by heat-treating Sb films. electrodeposited on Cu substrates. The influence of the electrodeposition conditions and the heat-treatment period on composition and morphology of the films were investigated (SEM and XRD) and the obtained films were tested as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. The Cu2Sb material showed a stable capacity of 290 mAh g(-1) (close to the theoretical capacity of 323 mAh g-1) during more than 60 cycles. The presence of 9-11% (w/w) Sb2O3 in the electrodeposited films resulted in smaller particles but also slowed down formation of Cu2Sb during the heat-treatment step. The presence of Sb2O3 was found to decrease the cycling stability although structural reversibility of Cu2Sb was obtained both with and without Sb2O3. Longer heat-treatment of pure Sb films resulted in the formation of Cu9Sb2 which was shown to be reduced at a lower potential than Cu2Sb. The Cu9Sb2 was converted to Cu2Sb during repeated cycling and the capacity of the latter Cu2Sb material was found to be 230 mAh g(-1). While reduction of the materials was complicated by simultaneous formation of an SEI layer, three plateaus Could be identified during the oxidation of Li3Sb, indicating the presence of three separate one-electron oxidation reactions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 53, no 24, 7226-7234 p.
Keyword [en]
Li-ion batteries, anode material, Cu2Sb, electrodeposition, Cu9Sb
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96860DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2008.05.005ISI: 000258977900027OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-96860DiVA: diva2:171581
Available from: 2008-03-19 Created: 2008-03-19 Last updated: 2009-09-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Insights into Stability Aspects of Novel Negative Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insights into Stability Aspects of Novel Negative Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Demands for high energy-density batteries have sharpened with the increased use of portable electronic devices, as has the focus global warming is now placing on the need for electric and electric-hybrid vehicles. Li-ion battery technology is superior to other rechargeable battery technologies in both energy- and power-density. A remaining challenge, however, is to find an alternative candidate to graphite as the commercial anode. Several metals can store more lithium than graphite, e.g., Al, Sn, Si and Sb. The main problem is the large volume changes that these metals undergo during the lithiation process, leading to degradation and pulverization of the anode with resulting limitations in cycle-life.

The Li-ion battery is studied in this thesis with the goal of better understanding the critical parameters determining high and stable electrochemical performance when using a metal or a metal-alloy anode. Various antimony-containing systems will be presented. These represent different routes to circumvent the problems caused by volume change. Sb-compounds exhibit a high lithium storage capability. At most, three Li-ions can be stored per Sb atom, leading to a theoretical gravimetric capacity of 660 mAh/g. Model systems with stepwise increasing complexity have been designed to better understand the factors influencing lithium insertion/extraction.

It is demonstrated that the microstructure of the anode material is crucial to stable cycling performance and high reversibility. The relative importance of the various factors controlling stability, such as particle-size, oxide content and morphology, varies strongly with the type of system studied. The cycling performance of pure Sb is improved dramatically by incorporating a second component, Sb2O3. With a critical oxide concentration of ~25%, a stable capacity close to the theoretical value of 770 mAh/g is obtained for over 50 cycles. Cu2Sb shows stable cycling performance in the absence of oxide. Cu9Sb2 has been presented for the first time as an anode material in a Li-ion battery context. Studies of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) formed on AlSb composite electrodes show an SEI layer thinner than graphite, and with a clearly dynamic character.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2008. 62 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 405
Keyword
Inorganic chemistry, Li-ion batteries, anode materials, Sb, Cu2Sb, electrodeposition, Oorganisk kemi
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8537 (URN)978-91-554-7124-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-04-11, Polhemsalen, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-03-19 Created: 2008-03-19 Last updated: 2010-03-05Bibliographically approved

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