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79 GHz Slot Antennas Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguides (SIW) in a Flexible Printed Circuit Board
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microwave and Terahertz Technology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
2009 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X, E-ISSN 1558-2221, Vol. 57, no 1, 64-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The design, fabrication and characterization of 79 GHz slot antennas based on substrate integrated waveguides (SIW) are presented in this paper. All the prototypes are fabricated in a polyimide flex foil using printed circuit board (PCB) fabrication processes. A novel concept is used to minimize the leakage losses of the SlWs at millimeter wave frequencies. Different losses in the SlWs are analyzed. SIW-based single slot antenna, longitudinal and four-by-four slot array antennas are numerically and experimentally studied. Measurements of the   antennas show approximately 4.7%, 5.4% and 10.7% impedance bandwidth (S-11 = -10 dB) with 2.8 dBi, 6.0 dBi and 11.0 dBi maximum antenna gain around 79 GHz, respectively. The measured results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 57, no 1, 64-71 p.
Keyword [en]
Flexible printed circuit boards, microstrip-to-SIW transition, millimeter wave, slot array antenna, substrate integrated waveguides (SIW)
National Category
Signal Processing
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96880DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2008.2009708ISI: 000264246700008OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-96880DiVA: diva2:171608
Available from: 2008-03-19 Created: 2008-03-19 Last updated: 2016-04-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. High Aspect Ratio Microstructures in Flexible Printed Circuit Boards: Process and Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Aspect Ratio Microstructures in Flexible Printed Circuit Boards: Process and Applications
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Flexible printed circuit boards (flex PCBs) are used in a wide range of electronic devices today due to their light weight, bendability, extensive wiring possibilities, and low-cost manufacturing techniques. The general trend in the flex PCB industry is further miniaturization alongside increasing functionality per device and reduced costs. To meet these demands, a new generation of low cost manufacturing technologies is being developed to enable structures with smaller lateral dimensions and higher packing densities.

Wet etching is today the most cost-efficient method for producing a large number of through-foil structures in flex PCBs. However, conventional wet etch techniques do not allow for through-foil structures with aspect ratios over 1 – a fact that either necessitates thin and mechanically weak foils or puts severe limitations on the packing density. The fabrication techniques presented in this thesis allow for through-foil structures with higher aspect ratios and packing densities using wet etching. To achieve high aspect ratios with wet etching, the flex PCB foils are pre-treated with irradiation by swift heavy ions. Each ion that passes through the foil leaves a track of damaged material which can be subsequently etched to form highly vertical pores. By using conventional flex PCB process techniques on the porous foils, high aspect ratio metallized through-foil structures are demonstrated.

The resulting structures consist of multiple sub-micrometer sized wires. These structures are superior to their conventional counterparts when it comes to their higher aspect ratios, higher possible packing densities and low metallic cross-section. Furthermore, metallized through-foil structures with larger areas and more complicated geometries are possible without losing the mechanical stability of the foil. This in turn enables applications that are not possible using conventional techniques and structures. In this thesis, two such applications are demonstrated: flex PCB vertical thermopile sensors and substrate integrated waveguides for use in millimeter wave applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2008. 58 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 407
Keyword
Engineering physics, flexible printed circuit boards, polyimide, through-hole vias, ion track technology, thermoelectricity, thermopiles, substrate integrated waveguides, millimeter wave devices, Teknisk fysik
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8565 (URN)978-91-554-7127-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-04-11, SiegbahnSalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:30
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
wisenet
Available from: 2008-03-19 Created: 2008-03-19 Last updated: 2011-01-17Bibliographically approved
2. Integrated Antenna Solutions for Wireless Sensor and Millimeter-Wave Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated Antenna Solutions for Wireless Sensor and Millimeter-Wave Systems
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents various integrated antenna solutions for different types of systems and applications, e.g. wireless sensors, broadband handsets, advanced base stations, MEMS-based reconfigurable front-ends, automotive anti-collision radars, and large area electronics.

For wireless sensor applications, a T-matched dipole is proposed and integrated in an electrically small body-worn sensor node. Measurement techniques are developed to characterize the port impedance and radiation properties. Possibilities and limitations of the planar inverted cone antenna (PICA) for small handsets are studied experimentally. Printed slot-type and folded PICAs are demonstrated for UWB handheld terminals.

Both monolithic and hybrid integration are applied for electrically steerable array antennas. Compact phase shifters within a traveling wave array antenna architecture, on single layer substrate, is investigated for the first time. Radio frequency MEMS switches are utilized to improve the performance of reconfigurable antennas at higher frequencies. Using monolithic integration, a 20 GHz switched beam antenna based on MEMS switches is implemented and evaluated. Compared to similar work published previously, complete experimental results are here for the first time reported. Moreover, a hybrid approach is used for a 24 GHz switched beam traveling wave array antenna. A MEMS router is fabricated on silicon substrate for switching two array antennas on a LTCC chip.

A concept of nano-wire based substrate integrated waveguides (SIW) is proposed for millimeter-wave applications. Antenna prototypes based on this concept are successfully demonstrated for automotive radar applications.

W-band body-worn nonlinear harmonic radar reflectors are proposed as a means to improve automotive radar functionality. Passive, semi-passive and active nonlinear reflectors consisting of array antennas and nonlinear circuitry on flex foils are investigated.

A new stretchable RF electronics concept for large area electronics is demonstrated. It incorporates liquid metal into microstructured elastic channels. The prototypes exhibit high stretchability, foldability, and twistability, with maintained electrical properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 114 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 698
Keyword
harmonic radar (HR), liquid alloy, millimeter-wave, micromachining, phase shifters, planar inverted cone antennas (PICA), printed circuit boards (PCB), quasi-Yagi antennas, radio frequency microelectromechanical system (RF MEMS), stretchable antennas, substrate integrate waveguides (SIW), T-matched dipole antennas, tapered slot antennas, traveling wave array antennas, ultrawideband (UWB), wireless sensor networks.
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-111197 (URN)978-91-554-7681-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-01-29, Siegbhansalen, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
wisenet
Available from: 2010-01-07 Created: 2009-12-06 Last updated: 2011-01-17Bibliographically approved

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Cheng, ShiYousef, HannaKratz, Henrik

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