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Dehydrogenation from 3d-transition-metal-doped NaAlH4: Prediction of catalysts
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics. (Condensed Matter Theory Group)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics. (Condensed Matter Theory Group)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics. (Condensed Matter Theory Group)
2007 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 90, no 14, 141904- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A fundamental understanding of the role of catalysts in improving the kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrogen sorption in NaAlH4 is the key for using this material in hydrogen storage. The authors present a systematic theoretical study of energies needed to desorb hydrogen in 3d transition metal (Sc-Cu)-doped NaAlH4. They show that Cr and Fe atoms can be far more effective catalysts than Ti in desorbing hydrogen. The role of the 3d metal atoms in improving the thermodynamics of dehydrogenation is attributed to a significant shortening of the bond length with neighboring Al atoms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 90, no 14, 141904- p.
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96883DOI: 10.1063/1.2719244ISI: 000245512200023OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-96883DiVA: diva2:171613
Available from: 2008-03-20 Created: 2008-03-20 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Hydrogen Storage Materials: Design, Catalysis, Thermodynamics, Structure and Optics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogen Storage Materials: Design, Catalysis, Thermodynamics, Structure and Optics
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Hydrogen is abundant, uniformly distributed throughout the Earth's surface and its oxidation product (water) is environmentally benign. Owing to these features, it is considered as an ideal synthetic fuel for a new world energetic matrix (renewable, secure and environmentally friendly) that could allow a sustainable future development. However, for this prospect to become a reality, efficient ways to produce, transport and store hydrogen still need to be developed. In the present thesis, theoretical studies of a number of potential hydrogen storage materials have been performed using density functional theory. In NaAlH4 doped with 3d transition metals (TM), the hypothesis of the formation of Ti-Al intermetallic alloy as the main catalytic mechanism for the hydrogen sorption reaction is supported. The gateway hypothesis for the catalysis mechanism in TM-doped MgH2 is confirmed through the investigation of MgH2 nano-clusters. Thermodynamics of Li-Mg-N-H systems are analyzed with good agreement between theory and experiments. Besides chemical hydrides, the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have also been investigated. Li-decorated MOF-5 is demonstrated to possess enhanced hydrogen gas uptake properties with a theoretically predicted storage capacity of 2 wt% at 300 K and low pressure.

The metal-hydrogen systems undergo many structural and electronic phase transitions induced by changes in pressure and/or temperature and/or H-concentration. It is important both from a fundamental and applied viewpoint to understand the underlying physics of these phenomena. Here, the pressure-induced structural phase transformations of NaBH4 and ErH3 were investigated. In the latter, an electronic transition is shown to accompany the structural modification. The electronic and optical properties of the low and high-pressure phases of crystalline MgH2 were calculated. The temperature-induced order-disorder transition in Li2NH is demonstrated to be triggered by Li sub-lattice melting. This result may contribute to a better understanding of the important solid-solid hydrogen storage reactions that involve this compound.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2008. x, 72 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 408
Keyword
Materials science, Hydrogen-storage materials, Density functional theory, Molecular dynamics, Catalysis, Thermodynamics, Optics, Materialvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8574 (URN)978-91-554-7129-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-04-11, Häggsalen, Ångstromlaboratoriet, SE-75121, Uppsala, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-03-20 Created: 2008-03-20Bibliographically approved
2. Insights into Materials Properties from Ab Initio Theory: Diffusion, Adsorption, Catalysis & Structure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insights into Materials Properties from Ab Initio Theory: Diffusion, Adsorption, Catalysis & Structure
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, density functional theory (DFT) calculations and DFT based ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have been employed in order to gain insights into materials properties like diffusion, adsorption, catalysis, and structure.

In transition metals, absorbed hydrogen atoms self-trap due to localization of metal d-electrons. The self-trapping state is shown to highly influence hydrogen diffusion in the classical over-barrier jump temperature region. Li diffusion in Li-N-H systems is investigated. The diffusion in Li3N is shown to be controlled by the concentration of vacancies. Exchanging one Li for H (Li2NH), gives a system where the diffusion no longer is dependent on the concentrations of vacancies, but instead on N-H rotations. Furthermore, exchanging another Li for H (LiNH2), results in a blockade of Li diffusion. For high-surface area hydrogen storage materials, metal organic frameworks and covalent organic frameworks, the hydrogen adsorption is studied. In metal organic frameworks, a Li-decoration is also suggested as a way to increase the hydrogen adsorption energy. In NaAlH4 doped with transition metals (TM), the hypothesis of TM-Al intermetallic alloys as the main catalytic species is supported. The source of the catalytic effect of carbon nanostructures on hydrogen desorption from NaAlH4 is shown to be the high electronegativity of the carbon nanostructures. A space-group optimized ab initio random structure search method is used to find a new ground state structure for BeC2 and MgC2. The fast change between the amorphous and the crystalline phase of GeSbTe phase-change materials is suggested to be due to the close resemblance between the local amorphous structure and the crystalline structure. Finally, we show that more than 80% of the voltage in the lead acid battery is due to relativistic effects.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2010. 81 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 772
Keyword
Density functional theory, Molecular dynamics, Diffusion, Catalysis, Adsorption, Random structure search, Hydrogen-storage materials, Phase-change materials
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Physics with spec. in Atomic, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-131331 (URN)978-91-554-7907-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-11-12, Siegbansalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Felaktigt tryckt som Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 702Available from: 2010-10-21 Created: 2010-09-30 Last updated: 2011-04-04Bibliographically approved

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Blomqvist, AndreasAhuja, Rajeev

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