This thesis contains two parts. The first part concerns the research work on free molecules using synchrotron-radiation-related techniques. Auger electron spectra of two free open-shell molecules, O2 and NO, were studied experimentally and theoretically. Photoionization experimental technique with tunable synchrotron radiation source was used to induce core-level electron ionization and obtain the KVV normal Auger electron spectra. A quantitative assignment of O2 normal Auger spectrum was obtained by applying ab initio CI calculations and LVI Auger line shape simulations including the bond length dependence of Auger transition rates. The photon energy dependence of normal Auger electron spectra was focused on with photon energies in the vicinities of core-ionization threshold energies. Consequently, the MAPCI (Molecular Auger Post Collision Interaction) theory was developed. Taking the near-threshold O2 normal Auger spectrum as an example, the two extreme cases of MAPCI effect, “atomic-like PCI” and “molecular PCI”, were discovered and discussed. The effect of shape resonance on near-threshold molecular normal Auger spectrum was discussed taking NO near threshold normal Auger spectra as example.
The second part deals with research work on the chemisorption of small epoxy organic molecules, ethylene oxide, methyl oxirane, on Si (100) surfaces. Synchrotron radiation related techniques, UPS, XPS and NEXAFS, were applied. Based on the valence photoemission spectra, C 1s and Si 2p XPS spectra, the epoxy ring opening reactions of these molecules in chemisorption process were proved. Further tentative search for the surface-adsorbate CDAD effect was performed, and no evident circular dichroism was confirmed.