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Morphology, Taxonomy and Interrelationships of Tristichopterid Fishes (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Evolutionary Organism Biology.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Tristichopterids (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) form a monophyletic group of exclusively Devonian fishes. This thesis consists of descriptions of new material of tristichopterids and closely related taxa, as well as new interpretations and descriptions of previously figured material. Redescribed specimens were originally figured as far back as 1861, and publications as old as this are almost always of limited use as anatomical and systematical references, in addition to being difficult to acquire. The possibility of using new techniques and new theoretical frameworks also provides good justification for taking a second look at such specimens. In the case of this thesis, this includes the use of computed tomography scanning methods, and the cladistic approach to describing the interrelationships of taxa.

The thesis includes a complete taxonomy of valid tristichopterid taxa, in addition to two new phylogenetic analyses incorporating the taxa that were described or redescribed. One of the analyses deals with the interrelationships of taxa along the entire tetrapod stem, and establishes the monophyly of the Tristichopteridae. The other analysis focuses on tristichopterid interrelationships.

An account is given of evolutionary trends within Tristichopteridae, and instances of parallel evolution between tristichopterids and other tetrapodomorph groups are discussed.

The biogeographical implications of tristichopterid occurences world-wide seem to corroborate the picture provided by other vertebrate groups, and give further support to one of two main hypotheses concerning the relative positions of Gondwana and Laurussia, the two major palaeocontinents during the Late Devonian. The supported hypothesis proposes a close proximity between southern Laurussia and northwestern Gondwana, as evidenced by the wide dispersal of derived tristichopterids by the Late Devonian. A Laurussian origin of tristichopterids is proposed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2008. , p. 54
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 421
Keywords [en]
Organismic biology, Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha, Tristichopteridae, biogeography, phylogeny, Computed Tomography, Devonian
Keywords [sv]
Organismbiologi
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8625ISBN: 978-91-554-7153-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-8625DiVA, id: diva2:171769
Public defence
2008-04-25, Lindahlsalen, Evolutionsbiologiskt Centrum, Norbyvägen 18A, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-04-03 Created: 2008-04-03 Last updated: 2009-04-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Redescription of the Anatomy of the Late Devonian Spodichthys Buetleri Jarvik, 1985 (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) from East Greenland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Redescription of the Anatomy of the Late Devonian Spodichthys Buetleri Jarvik, 1985 (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) from East Greenland
2008 (English)In: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, ISSN 0272-4634, E-ISSN 1937-2809, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 637-655Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The tetrapodomorph fish Spodichthys buetleri from the Upper Devonian of East Greenland is redescribed from computed tomography scans of material originally studied by Erik Jarvik. A wealth of new anatomical data was revealed by scanning the nearly perfectly three-dimensional specimens, including detailed information on the shape of the brain cavity and the internal structure of the lower jaws. Spodichthys displays an interesting mix of generalized “osteolepidid,” or primitive tetrapodomorph, and tristichopterid features. Derived characters shared by Spodichthys, tristichopterids and (Panderichthys + Tetrapoda) include the loss of cosmine, a small kite-shaped parasymphysial plate, and a long commissural lamina of the entopterygoid. The presence of an extratemporal lateral to the tabular and a single fang position on the posterior coronoid and ectopterygoid are examples of basal tetrapodomorph characters retained in Spodichthys. Spodichthys is unique in having coronoid fangs positioned lateral to the corresponding replacement pit rather than having an anterior-posterior alternation between developed fang and replacement pit, which is the normal tetrapodomorph condition. Jarvik's original conclusion that Spodichthys is closely related to the tristichopterids is confirmed by a phylogenetic analysis, which places Spodichthys as the sister taxon of the Tristichopteridae.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97001 (URN)10.1671/0272-4634(2008)28[637:AROTAO]2.0.CO;2 (DOI)000259414500006 ()
Available from: 2008-04-03 Created: 2008-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14
2. Heddleichthys - a new tristichopterid genus from the Dura Den Formation, Midland Valley, Scotland (Famennian, Late Devonian)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heddleichthys - a new tristichopterid genus from the Dura Den Formation, Midland Valley, Scotland (Famennian, Late Devonian)
2009 (English)In: Acta Zoologica (Stockholm), ISSN 0001-7272, E-ISSN 1463-6395, Vol. 90, no Suppl. 1, p. 273-284Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new tristichopterid genus, Heddleichthys, from the Famennian of Scotland is described based on material previously assigned to a number of different genera, including Glyptopomus, Gyroptychius and Eusthenopteron. The validity of the new genus is established by a discussion of the reasons for the invalidity of the previous assignments. Heddleichthys is characterized by a combination of derived and primitive tristichopterid features. Derived features include the presence of symphyseal dentary fangs and premaxillary pseudofangs, a diamond-shaped symmetric caudal fin, a low posterodorsal expansion of the maxilla, and a posteriorly positioned kite-shaped pineal series. Primitive features include a postorbital and jugal contribution to the orbital margin and a parasphenoid with a ventral keel. External dermal bones are rather poorly preserved in the referred material, with few easily discernible sutures. The holotype specimen, a three-dimensionally preserved skull, was scanned by computed tomography to reveal well-preserved internal dermal bones, including entopterygoids, vomers and parasphenoid. There is no preserved endoskeletal material. As the first representative of derived tristichopterids described from Britain, Heddleichthys lends support to the idea that faunal dispersion between Gondwana and Laurussia in the Late Devonian was widespread. Derived tristichopterids have been described from all continents except South America. In contrast, the basal tristichopterids Eusthenopteron and Tristichopterus are still only described from Laurussia.

Keywords
Heddleichthys, Dura Den, Tristichopteridae, Famennian, Late Devonian
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97002 (URN)10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00376.x (DOI)000266242000023 ()
Available from: 2008-04-03 Created: 2008-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Anatomy of Tristichopterus, with comments on the validity of Eusthenopteron
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anatomy of Tristichopterus, with comments on the validity of Eusthenopteron
Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97003 (URN)
Available from: 2008-04-03 Created: 2008-04-03 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
4. A new tristichopterid (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) from the Upper Famennian Evieux Formation (Upper Devonian) of Belgium
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new tristichopterid (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) from the Upper Famennian Evieux Formation (Upper Devonian) of Belgium
2009 (English)In: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983, Vol. 52, p. 823-836Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Additional material of a large specimen of tristichopterid fish from   the Upper Famennian Evieux Formation of Belgium is described. This   large fish was previously assigned to Tristichopteridae gen. et sp.   indet. due to the lack of diagnostic anatomical data. New available   material consists of the internal surface of the parietal shield,   vomers and anterior part of the parasphenoid, subopercular and   submandibulo-branchiostegal bones, and an internal view of the anterior  part of the mandible. A possible autapomorphy of the new form from   Belgium, Langlieria socqueti gen. nov. et sp. nov., is the absence of   marginal teeth on the vomer except on its most lateral part. Apart from   these features, it only differs from the genus Mandageria from   Australia in the absence of marginal teeth between the dentary fang and   the mandibular symphysis, in the presence of a raised marginal crest   lateral to the anterior coronoid fang, and in the presence of numerous   small marginal teeth on the premaxilla. It differs from the   cosmopolitan genus Eusthenodon in a number of respects: the   supratemporal, tabular, and postparietal bones are superficially fused,   as are the intertemporal and parietal bones, the dermal ornament is   proportionally very fine, and the denticulated field of the   parasphenoid stands proud rather than being recessed into the body of   the bone.

Keywords
Belgium, biogeography, Late Devonian, phylogeny, Tetrapodomorpha, Tristichopteridae
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97004 (URN)10.1111/j.1475-4983.2009.00876.x (DOI)000268060800009 ()
Available from: 2008-04-03 Created: 2008-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14
5. Correcting taxon names containing diacritics - examples from Paleozoic vertebrates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correcting taxon names containing diacritics - examples from Paleozoic vertebrates
2009 (English)In: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, ISSN 0272-4634, E-ISSN 1937-2809, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 269-270Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97005 (URN)000264900200021 ()
Available from: 2008-04-03 Created: 2008-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14

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