A beam source model for scanned proton beams
2007 (English)In: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 52, no 11, 3151-3168 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
A beam source model, i.e. a model for the initial phase space of the beam, for scanned proton beams has been developed. The beam source model is based on parameterized particle sources with characteristics found by fitting towards measured data per individual beam line. A specific aim for this beam source model is to make it applicable to the majority of the various proton beam systems currently available or under development, with the overall purpose to drive dose calculations in proton beam treatment planning. The proton beam phase space is characterized by an energy spectrum, radial and angular distributions and deflections for the non-modulated elementary pencil beam. The beam propagation through the scanning magnets is modelled by applying experimentally determined focal points for each scanning dimension. The radial and angular distribution parameters are deduced from measured two-dimensional fluence distributions of the elementary beam in air. The energy spectrum is extracted from a depth dose distribution for a fixed broad beam scan pattern measured in water. The impact of a multi-slab range shifter for energy modulation is calculated with an own Monte Carlo code taking multiple scattering, energy loss and straggling, non-elastic and elastic nuclear interactions in the slab assembly into account. Measurements for characterization and verification have been performed with the scanning proton beam system at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. Both in-air fluence patterns and dose points located in a water phantom were used. For verification, dose-in-water was calculated with the Monte Carlo code GEANT 3.21 instead of using a clinical dose engine with approximations of its own. For a set of four individual pencil beams, both with the full energy and range shifted, 96.5% (99.8%) of the tested dose points satisfied the 1%/1 mm (2%/2 mm) gamma criterion.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 52, no 11, 3151-3168 p.
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97034DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/52/11/015ISI: 000246553500015PubMedID: 17505095OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-97034DiVA: diva2:171810