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Bone resorbing activity and cytokine levels in gingival crevicular fluid before and after treatment of periodontal disease
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
2004 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 31, no 6, 475-482 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate bone resorption activity (BRA), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in sites with no signs of periodontal disease and in sites with horizontal or angular loss of periodontal bone. These assessments were performed before and after periodontal treatment. METHODS: GCFs were collected from 10 individuals with filter strips from two healthy sites and four sites with deep pathological periodontal pockets, two of which showed horizontal bone loss and two with angular bone loss. All diseased pockets were treated with flap surgery and systemic Doxyferm. Twelve months later GCF was collected again and treatment outcome evaluated. BRA in GCFs was assessed in a bone organ culture system by following the release of (45)Ca from neonatal mouse calvariae. The amounts of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-1ra in GCFs were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Treatment resulted in reduction of pocket depths with 3.5+/-0.5 mm in sites with angular bone loss and 2.8+/-0.3 mm in sites with horizontal bone loss. Initially, BRA, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-1ra were significantly higher in GCFs from diseased sites compared with healthy sites. No differences in BRA and cytokine levels were seen between GCFs from pockets with horizontal and angular bone losses. The levels of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-1ra were significantly reduced after treatment of diseased pockets. Pocket depths were significantly correlated to BRA only in pre-treatment sites with angular bone loss. BRA was correlated to Il-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, but not to IL-1ra, in diseased sites with angular bone loss, before and after treatment. The reductions of BRA in the individual sites, seen after treatment, were not correlated to the reductions of Il-1 alpha, IL-1 beta or IL-1ra. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that BRA and cytokine levels are increased in GCFs from sites with periodontal disease and that periodontal treatment results in reduction of the cytokines. Our findings further indicate that IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta play important roles for the BRA present in GCFs, but that other factors also contribute to this activity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 31, no 6, 475-482 p.
Keyword [en]
bone resorption, inflammation, interleukin-1, periodontal disease
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97154DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2004.00504.xPubMedID: 15142219OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-97154DiVA: diva2:171970
Available from: 2008-04-28 Created: 2008-04-28 Last updated: 2010-05-25Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Oral health and cardiovascular disease
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oral health and cardiovascular disease
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the past two decades studies have indicated that oral health might be associated with the prevalence for cardiovascular disease (CVD), although the biological link still remains unknown. Bacteria and inflammatory mediators causing periodontal disease have also been suggested to influence the progression of atherosclerosis.

The aims of this thesis were to study oral inflammation and associations between different oral health parameters and CVD.

Inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) as well as bone resorption activity (BRA) were significantly higher in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from sites with periodontal disease compared to healthy sites. Treatment resulted in a reduction of BRA as well as the levels of IL-1 for most of the diseased pockets. The levels of IL-1 were not correlated to the amount of BRA.

Number of teeth (NT) was consistently associated to CVD and was the only oral health parameter that related to all-cause mortality and mortality in CVD in a dose-dependent manner. Subjects with <10 teeth had a 7-fold increase risk for mortality in coronary heart disease compared to those with >25 teeth. Furthermore, NT was also significantly associated to the levels of leukocytes and to the metabolic syndrome, which consists of a combination of cardiovascular risk factors.

Other investigated oral health parameters, such as severity of periodontal disease, number of deepened pockets, and bleeding on probing, were not related to CVD in a consistent way.

Oral health parameters as well as myocardial infarction (MI) were related to serum antibody levels against Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), indicating that Pg might be a link between oral health and MI.

In conclusion, treatment reduced the increased levels of IL-1 and BRA in GCF from sites with periodontal disease. Oral health was associated to CVD with number of teeth being the only oral health parameter that consistently was associated to CVD. Serum antibody levels against P. gingivalis were related to myocardial infarction (MI) as well as to oral health parameters, suggesting that this bacteria could be a link between oral health and CVD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2008. 93 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 346
Medicine, Oral health, periodontal disease, number of teeth, cardiovascular disease, mortality, Medicin
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8708 (URN)978-91-554-7188-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-05-23, Enghoffsalen, Kardiologhuset ingång 50, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, 09:15
Available from: 2008-04-28 Created: 2008-04-28Bibliographically approved

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