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Modeling fallout of anthropogenic I-129
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics. (Jonfysik)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics. (Jonfysik)
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2008 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, no 24, 9225-9230 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the relatively well-recognized emission rates of the anthropogenic 128I, there is little knowledge about the temporal fallout patterns and magnitude of fluxes since the start of the atomic era at the early 1940s.We here present measurements of annual 129I concentrations in sediment archives from Sweden and Finland covering the period 1942-2006. The results revealed impression of 129I emissions from the nuclear reprocessing facility at Sellafield and La Hague and a clear Chernobyl fallout enhancement during 1986. In order to estimate relative contributions from the different sources, a numerical model approach was used taking into accountthe emission rates/ estimated fallout, transport pathways, and the sediment system. The model outcomes suggest a relatively dominating marine source of 129I to north Europe compared to direct gaseous releases. A transfer rate of 129I from sea to atmosphere is derived for pertinent sea areas (English Channel, Irish Sea, and North Sea), which is estimated at 0.04 to 0.21 y-1.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 42, no 24, 9225-9230 p.
National Category
Physical Sciences Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Ion Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97362DOI: 10.1021/es8009953ISI: 000261678800038OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-97362DiVA: diva2:172266
Available from: 2008-05-16 Created: 2008-05-16 Last updated: 2016-04-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Anthropogenic 129I Traced in Environmental Archives by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anthropogenic 129I Traced in Environmental Archives by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since the beginning of the nuclear era, starting during the 1940s, large amount of radioactivity has been released into the environment. This thesis deals with the temporal and spatial distribution of the anthropogenic radioisotope 129I (T1/2= 15.7 Myr) in northern Europe. A routine sample preparation procedure for extraction of iodine from milligram amounts of solid materials has been developed and aimed for measuring the 129I concentration by the ultra-sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry method. The technique was further used for the analysis of 129I in sediments collected from two lakes in Sweden and one lake in Finland as well as sediments from two sites in the Baltic Sea. In addition, 129I concentrations in aerosol samples from northern and southern Sweden covering the period 1983 to 2000 have been measured. The results reveal a gradual increase in the anthropogenic 129I fluxes since the 1950s that are linked to emissions from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities in Sellafield (UK) and La Hague (France). A sharp increase coinciding with the Chernobyl accident is identified from the Swedish lakes located in areas characterised by relatively high Chernobyl fallout. Numerical modeling of the 129I deposition predicts that >50% of the flux to the lake sediments is related to the liquid emissions from the reprocessing facilities. The modeling also reasonably simulates the contribution of the Chernobyl event to the total 129I flux. The novel time series from northern Europe on 129I in aerosols show about one order of magnitude higher concentration in northern compared to southern Sweden. Estimate of 129I dry fallout based on the aerosol data suggests <25% contribution to the total fallout. The distribution of 129I in the sediment archives demonstrates the potential of the isotope as a new time marker for chronological and environmental investigations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2008. 50 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 449
Keyword
Engineering physics, iodine-129, sediment, aerosol, reprocessing, Chernobyl, nuclear weapon, Sellafield, La Hague, accelerator mass spectrometry, AMS, Teknisk fysik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8989 (URN)978-91-554-7238-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-06-12, 4101, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Läderhyddsv. 1, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2008-05-16 Created: 2008-05-16 Last updated: 2009-03-26Bibliographically approved

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Possnert, Göran

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