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Comparison of Forwarding Strategies in Internet Connected MANETs
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. (Communication Research)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. (Communication Research)
University of Basel.
2004 (English)In: ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, ISSN 1559-1662, Vol. 8, no 4, 72-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An important challenge for the wider adoption of mobile ad hoc network (MANET) technologies is finding ways to efficiently interconnect them with the Internet. However, such interconnections prove difficult due to differences in mobility, addressing and routingbetween MANETs and existing IP networks.

In this paper, we review the existing solutions to interconnect MANETs with the Internet, but find them lacking in robustness and flexibility. For instance, many solutions do not consider the presence of multiple gateways, and in such scenarios they either fail, or are lessefficient due to the lack of multi-homing capabilities.

A key insight of ours is that the reason for routing failure is usually an interconnection scheme’s inability to express indirection (i.e., a way to enforce routing through a certain gateway on the path toward a destination in the Internet). Another problem concerns state replication where a route update fails to replicate all the routing state needed to forward packets to an Internet gateway.

We analyze the above problems and suggest a solution that provides robust and flexible Internet connectivity. With minor adaptions our solution works for any MANET routing protocol, and has support for multiple gateways and multi-homing. Simulations show that, when used in combination with AODV routing, our solution provides up to 20% delivery ratio improvement over one of the main alternatives. A prototype implementation illustrates the feasibility of our solution in the real world.


Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM , 2004. Vol. 8, no 4, 72-76 p.
Keyword [en]
Opportunistic forwarding, networking, mobile units, haggle
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Computer Communication
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97366DOI: 10.1145/1052871.1052880OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-97366DiVA: diva2:172276
Available from: 2008-05-22 Created: 2008-05-22 Last updated: 2011-02-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Challenged Networking: An Experimental Study of new Protocols and Architectures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenged Networking: An Experimental Study of new Protocols and Architectures
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With the growth of Internet, the underlying protocols are increasingly challenged by new technologies and applications. The original Internet protocols were, however, not designed for wireless communication, mobility, long disconnection times, and varying bandwidths. In this thesis, we study challenged networking, and how well old and new protocols operate under such constraints.

Our study is experimental. We build network testbeds and measure the performance of alternative protocols and architectures. We develop novel methodologies for repeatable experiments that combine emulations, simulations and real world experiments. Based on our results we suggest modifications to existing protocols, and we also develop a new network architecture that matches the constraints of a challenged network, in our case, an opportunistic network.

One of our most important contributions is an Ad hoc Protocol Evaluation (APE) testbed. It has been successfully used worldwide. The key to its success is that it significantly lowers the barrier to repeatable experiments involving wireless and mobile computing devices. Using APE, we present side-by-side performance comparisons of IETF MANET routing protocols. A somewhat surprising result is that some ad hoc routing protocols perform a factor 10 worse in the testbed than predicted by a common simulation tool (ns-2). We find that this discrepancy is mainly related to the protocols’ sensing abilities, e.g., how accurately they can infer their neighborhood in a real radio environment. We propose and implement improvements to these protocols based on the results.

Our novel network architecture Haggle is another important contribution. It is based on content addressing and searching. Mobile devices in opportunistic networks exchange content whenever they detect each other. We suggest that the exchange should be based on interests and searches, rather than on destination names and addresses. We argue that content binding should be done late in challenged networks, something which our search approach supports well.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2008. 266 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 450
Challenged networking, Network Architecture, Wireless Ad hoc Networks, Delay Tolerant Networks, Opportunistic Networks, Testbeds.
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-9002 (URN)978-91-554-7239-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-06-13, Polacksbacken Aula, Polacksbacken Aula, Lägerhyddsvägen 2, SE-75237 Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Available from: 2008-05-22 Created: 2008-05-22 Last updated: 2011-02-18Bibliographically approved

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