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Postprandial changes in gut regulatory peptides in gastric bypass patients
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
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2008 (English)In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, Vol. 32, 1640-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: The marked weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) for morbid obesity is still incompletely understood. It has been suggested that, besides the restriction imposed by the surgical procedure, alterations in gut regulatory peptides signaling the brain might contribute. The aim of this study was to measure the putative satiety peptides peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and pro-neurotensin (pro-NT) in response to fasting and feeding. DESIGN: The study is a cross-sectional study. After a prolonged overnight 14 h fast, a standardized mixed meal (574 kcal) was provided. Blood samples for peptide measurements were obtained before and after the meal. SUBJECTS: Forty subjects (20 males and females) were included; 10 morbidly obese; (mean age 41+/-7 years; mean BMI 44+/-3 kg/m(2)), 10 operated with RYGBP (age 45+/-5 years; BMI 35+/-6 kg/m(2)), 10 aged-matched lean (age 44+/-5 years; BMI 24+/-3 kg/m(2)) and 10 young lean subjects (age 26+/-2 years; BMI 23+/-2 kg/m(2)). MEASUREMENTS: Plasma concentrations of PYY, GLP-1, PP and pro-NT were obtained. RESULTS: PYY levels increased more in the RYGBP group than in the other groups after the test meal. GLP-1 levels rose in the RYGBP patients, with a small increase seen in the age-matched lean group. PP concentrations increased similarly in all groups postprandially. Pro-NT levels were highest in surgical patients, with no meal effect. CONCLUSION: RYGBP subjects displayed exaggerated PYY and GLP-1 responses to a standardized meal and demonstrated higher pro-NT levels both pre- and postprandially. The findings indicate that possibly the alterations in gut peptide secretion may promote weight loss after gastric bypass surgery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 32, 1640-6 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97583DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2008.157ISI: 000260925300006PubMedID: 18794895OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-97583DiVA: diva2:172582
Available from: 2008-10-02 Created: 2008-10-02 Last updated: 2010-02-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Gastric Bypass in Morbid Obesity: Postoperative Changes in Metabolic, Inflammatory and Gut Regulatory Peptides
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gastric Bypass in Morbid Obesity: Postoperative Changes in Metabolic, Inflammatory and Gut Regulatory Peptides
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis examines the effect of surgical weight loss on gut and adipose tissue peptides involved in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis in morbidly obese humans. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is the gold standard operation used for effective long-term weight loss and improved health. The exact mechanisms for this outcome are under investigation.

We measured ghrelin, a recently discovered hunger hormone, insulin, adiponectin and leptin along with anthropometry measures in 66 morbidly obese patients prior to and 6 and 12 months after RYGBP. Impressive weight loss occurred postoperatively as did alterations in the peptides. Consistent correlations were found between weight, leptin, ghrelin and insulin. The main findings were low ghrelin concentrations in obesity and an increase after RYGBP.

We explored inflammatory proteins C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A and interleukin-6 before and during massive weight loss 6 and 12 months after RYGBP in morbidly obese subjects. The studied proteins declined after surgery and a correlation between CRP and homeostatic model of assessment for insulin resistance, independent of BMI, strongly linked insulin resistance and inflammation. CRP declined most in insulin-sensitive subjects.

We examined the excluded stomach mucosa and vagus nerve by measuring gastrin, pepsinogen I (PGI), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and ghrelin levels during week 1 and year after RYGBP. Ghrelin levels rose with weight loss but declined 24-hours after surgery, like PP, indicating transient vagal nerve damage. Low levels of gastrin and PGI suggest a resting mucosa.

We evaluated gut peptides: peptide YY (PYY), glucaogon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), pro-neurotensin (pro-NT) and PP, in lean (young and middle-aged), obese and postoperative RYGBP subjects pre- and postprandially. RYGBP subjects had exaggerated levels of PYY and GLP-1 postprandially and higher basal proNT levels, implying a ‘satiety peptide tone’ that may contribute to the maintenance of weight loss.

In summary, RYGBP results in marked weight loss and alterations in gut and adipose tissue peptides involved in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. These postoperative peptide changes may contribute to impressive weight loss observed after RYGBP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2008. 59 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 380
Keyword
gastric bypass, morbid obesity, ghrelin, C-reactive protein, pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1
National Category
Clinical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-9297 (URN)978-91-554-7293-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-10-25, Enghoffsalen, Entrance 50, University Hospital Uppsala, 09:15
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Available from: 2008-10-02 Created: 2008-10-02Bibliographically approved

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