uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Moisturizers change the mRNA expression of enzymes synthesizing skin barrier lipids
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatology and Venereology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatology and Venereology.
Show others and affiliations
2009 (English)In: Archives of Dermatological Research, ISSN 0340-3696, E-ISSN 1432-069X, Vol. 301, no 8, 587-594 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a previous study, 7-week treatment of normal human skin with two test moisturizers, Complex cream and Hydrocarbon cream, was shown to affect mRNA expression of certain genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation. Moreover, the treatment altered transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in opposite directions. In the present study, the mRNA expression of genes important for formation of barrier lipids, i.e., cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides, was examined. Treatment with Hydrocarbon cream, which increased TEWL, also elevated the gene expression of GBA, SPTLC2, SMPD1, ALOX12B, ALOXE3, and HMGCS1. In addition, the expression of PPARG was decreased. On the other hand, Complex cream, which decreased TEWL, induced only the expression of PPARG, although not confirmed at the protein level. Furthermore, in the untreated skin, a correlation between the mRNA expression of PPARG and ACACB, and TEWL was found, suggesting that these genes are important for the skin barrier homeostasis. The observed changes further demonstrate that long-term treatment with certain moisturizers may induce dysfunctional skin barrier, and as a consequence several signaling pathways are altered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 301, no 8, 587-594 p.
Keyword [en]
Long-term treatment, Moisturizers, Skin barrier function, Gene expression, Arachidonate lipoxygenases, PPAR
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Dermatology and Venerology
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97592DOI: 10.1007/s00403-009-0958-2ISI: 000269055000005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-97592DiVA: diva2:172596
Available from: 2008-10-01 Created: 2008-10-01 Last updated: 2011-04-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Skin barrier responses to moisturizers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skin barrier responses to moisturizers
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Moisturizers are used in various types of dry skin disorders, but also by people with healthy skin. It is not unusual that use of moisturizers is continued for weeks, months, or even years. A number of moisturizers have been shown to improve the skin barrier function, while others to deteriorate it, but the reason for observed effects remains unknown. Further understanding of the mechanism by which long-term treatment with moisturizers influences the skin barrier would have clinical implications, as barrier-deteriorating creams may enhance penetration of allergens or irritants and predispose to dry skin and eczema, while barrier-improving ones could reduce many problems.

The present research combined non-invasive techniques with analyses of skin biopsies, allowing studies of the epidermis at molecular and cellular level. Test moisturizers were examined on healthy human volunteers for their effect on the skin barrier, with regard to such factors as pH, lipid type, and presence of a humectant, as well as complexity of the product. After a 7-week treatment with the moisturizers, changes in transepidermal water loss, skin capacitance, and susceptibility to an irritant indicated a modified skin barrier function. Moreover, the mRNA expression of several genes involved in the assembly, differentiation and desquamation of the stratum corneum, as well as lipid metabolism, was altered in the skin treated with one of the moisturizers, while the other moisturizer induced fewer changes.

In conclusion, long-term use of moisturizers may strengthen the barrier function of the skin, but also deteriorate it and induce skin dryness. Moisturizers have also a significant impact on the skin biochemistry, detectable at molecular level. Since the type of influence is determined by the composition of a moisturizer, more careful selection of ingredients could help to design moisturizers generating a desired clinical effect, and to avoid ingredients with a negative impact on the skin.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2008. 66 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 381
skin barrier function, moisturizers, long-term treatment, transepidermal water loss, gene expression, skin pH, lipids, urea
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-9300 (URN)978-91-554-7296-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-10-24, Rosénsalen, Ingång 95/96, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Available from: 2008-10-01 Created: 2008-10-01 Last updated: 2009-05-28Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Törmä, Hans
By organisation
Dermatology and Venereology
In the same journal
Archives of Dermatological Research
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 236 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link