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Plant-Derived Chemicals as Tick Repellents
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of Lyme borreliosis and Tick-borne encephalitis in Europe. Repellents provide a practical means of protection against tick bites and can therefore reduce transmission of tick-borne diseases.

In laboratory tests, pieces of cloth treated with MyggA Natural® (a commercial insect repellent) or with the essential oils of Corymbia citriodora (30%), Lavandula angustifolia (1 and 30%), Pelargonium graveolens (1 and 30%), Hyptis suaveolens (10%), Salvadora persica, Pistacia atlantica, Juniperus phoenicea (20%) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 5.0%) showed strong repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs.

In a tick-infested woodland in east-central Sweden, we tested by randomized, standardised methodology the potential anti-tick repellent activity of MyggA Natural® (roll-on), two concentrations of MyggA Natural® spray, RB86 (a commercially available insect repellent for horses), the essential oil of C. citriodora and three concentrations of MJ. Each substance was dissolved in acetone and applied separately to 1 m2 cloths which were then pulled over vegetation. Nymphal tick numbers on the cloths were recorded at 10-m intervals and differed significantly between treated cloths and the untreated control and also between collectors.

Volatile compounds from fresh and dried leaves of H. suaveolens and the essential oils of H. suaveolens (from Laos and Guinea Bissau) and S. persica, P. atlantica and J. phoenicea (from Libya) were collected by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and the constituents were identified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two main sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in the H. suaveolens oil were β-caryophyllene and humulene. These were modified by oxidation and sulphidation to obtain effective tick repellent compounds with lower volatility. In all three oils from Libyan plants the main monoterpene hydrocarbons were α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-phellandrene, 4-carene, β-phellandrene and γ-terpinene.

The selected plant species contained numerous volatiles known to have insecticidal, acaricidal, and/or insect repellent properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Universitetsbiblioteket , 2008. , p. 61
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 574
Keywords [en]
Ixodes ricinus, plants, essential oils, tick repellent, Sweden
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-9368ISBN: 978-91-554-7337-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-9368DiVA, id: diva2:172830
Public defence
2008-12-05, Zootissalen, Evolutionsmuseet (Museum of evolution), Norbyvägen 16, SE-752 36, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2009-04-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Repellency of oils of lemon eucalyptus, geranium, and lavender and the mosquito repellent MyggA Natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Repellency of oils of lemon eucalyptus, geranium, and lavender and the mosquito repellent MyggA Natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field.
2006 (English)In: Journal of Medical Entomology, ISSN 4, Vol. 43, p. 731-736Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97764 (URN)
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2009-04-02Bibliographically approved
2. Repellency of MyggA® Natural spray (para-menthane 3, 8-diol) and RB86 (neem oil) against the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the field in east-central Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Repellency of MyggA® Natural spray (para-menthane 3, 8-diol) and RB86 (neem oil) against the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the field in east-central Sweden
2006 (English)In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 40, no 3-4, p. 271-277Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the field in south-central Sweden, we tested by randomised, standardised methodology the potential anti-tick repellent activity of two concentrations of MyggA® Natural spray (containing PMD) (4.2 and 3.2 g/m2) and one of RB86 (with 70% neem oil containing azadirachtin)(3 g/m2) to host seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus. Each substance was applied separately to 1 m2 cotton flannel cloths. Nymphal ticks on the cloths, pulled over the vegetation, were recorded at 10-m stops. Nymphal numbers recorded differed significantly between treated cloths [4.2 or 3.2 g MyggA® Natural spray/m2 and 3 g RB86/m2] and the untreated control (df = 3, χ2 = 112.74, P < 0.0001). Nymphal numbers also differed significantly among collectors (df = 3, χ2 = 15.80, P < 0.001). Repellency of treated cloths, i.e., 4.2 or 3.2 g MyggA® Natural spray/m2 and 3 g RB 86/m2 declined from day 0 (i.e. the day of impregnation) to day 3 after impregnation from 77 to 24%, 58 to 16% and 47 to 0.5%, respectively. This study suggests that all three treatments have significant repellent activities against I. ricinus nymphs.

Keywords
Azadirachtin, Ixodes ricinus ticks, Lemon eucalyptus, Para-menthane-3, 8-diol, Tick repellents
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97765 (URN)10.1007/s10493-006-9031-4 (DOI)000243963600010 ()17103083 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Repellency of methyl jasmonate to Ixodes ricinus nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Repellency of methyl jasmonate to Ixodes ricinus nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae)
2007 (English)In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 209-215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In our search for tick repellents of plant origin, to be used as alternatives to commercial arthropod repellents, we investigated the effect of the well known plant signaling compound methyl jasmonate (MJ) using nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus. In laboratory tests, pieces of cloth with MJ at 0.075, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.75 mg/cm2 yielded increasing repellencies against the nymphs: 57%, 71%, 92% and 99%, respectively, of the nymphs did not cling to the cloth. Repellency of MJ was also investigated in a tick-infested woodland area in central Sweden. Cotton flannel cloths sprayed with 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2 mg/cm2 MJ dissolved in acetone were dragged over the ground vegetation. The numbers of nymphs on the treated cloths were significantly lower than those on the untreated cloth. Thus, MJ has, at the concentrations tested, significant repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs.

Keywords
Ixodes ricinus ticks, Methyl jasmonate, Higher plants, Repellents, Sweden
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97766 (URN)10.1007/s10493-007-9066-1 (DOI)000248170500006 ()17611808 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Hyptis suaveolens a source for arthropod repellent compounds.: Repellency of sesquiterpene oxides and sulfides to Ixodes ricinus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hyptis suaveolens a source for arthropod repellent compounds.: Repellency of sesquiterpene oxides and sulfides to Ixodes ricinus
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97767 (URN)
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
5. Tick repellent properties of three Libyan plants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tick repellent properties of three Libyan plants
2009 (English)In: Journal of medical entomology, ISSN 0022-2585, E-ISSN 1938-2928, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 1415-1419Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Specimens of Salvadora persica Wallich (Salvadoraceae), Pistacia   atlantica Desfontaines (Anacardiaceae), and Juniperus phoenicea L.   (Cupressaceae) were collected at The Green Mountain in northeastern   Libya. The tick-repellent effects of the essential oils from the plants   were evaluated using host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus L. (Acari:   Ixodidae) in the laboratory. Significant tick repellent effects were   observed for the oils of all three species, but the duration of action   was short. The oils were obtained by steam distillation. Volatile   compounds of the essential oils were collected by solid phase   microextraction and the constituents were identified by gas   chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Keywords
medicinal plants, ethnobotany, essential oil, Ixodes ricinus, tick repellents
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97768 (URN)000271591800023 ()
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved

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