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The Lysekil Wave Power Project: Status Update
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
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2008 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97846OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-97846DiVA: diva2:172932
Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2014-04-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Energy from Ocean Waves: Full Scale Experimental Verification of a Wave Energy Converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy from Ocean Waves: Full Scale Experimental Verification of a Wave Energy Converter
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A wave energy converter has been constructed and its function and operational characteristics have been thoroughly investigated and published. The wave energy converter was installed in March of 2006 approximately two kilometers off the Swedish west coast in the proximity of the town Lysekil. Since then the converter has been submerged at the research site for over two and a half years and in operation during three time periods for a total of 12 months, the latest being during five months of 2008. Throughout this time the generated electricity has been transmitted to shore and operational data has been recorded. The wave energy converter and its connected electrical system has been continually upgraded and each of the three operational periods have investigated more advanced stages in the progression toward grid connection. The wave energy system has faced the challenges of the ocean and initial results and insights have been reached, most important being that the overall wave energy concept has been verified. Experiments have shown that slowly varying power generation from ocean waves is possible.

Apart from the wave energy converter, three shorter studies have been performed. A sensor was designed for measuring the air gap width of the linear generator used in the wave energy converter. The sensor consists of an etched coil, a search coil, that functions passively through induction. Theory and experiment showed good agreement.

The Swedish west coast wave climate has been studied in detail. The study used eight years of wave data from 13 sites in the Skagerrak and Kattegatt, and data from a wave measurement buoy located at the wave energy research site. The study resulted in scatter diagrams, hundred year extreme wave estimations, and a mapping of the energy flux in the area. The average energy flux was found to be approximately 5.2 kW/m in the offshore Skagerrak, 2.8 kW/m in the near shore Skagerrak, and 2.4 kW/m in the Kattegat.

A method for evaluating renewable energy technologies in terms of economy and engineering solutions has been investigated. The match between the technologies and the fundamental physics of renewable energy sources can be given in terms of the technology’s utilization. It is argued that engineers should strive for a high utilization if competitive technologies are to be developed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Universitetsbiblioteket, 2008. 130 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 580
Keyword
wave power, wave energy converter, sea trials, ocean energy, linear generator, point absorber, search coil, wave climate, utilization
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-9404 (URN)978-91-554-7354-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-12-12, Polacksbackens aula, Lägerhyddsv. 2, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2012-11-09Bibliographically approved
2. Buoy and Generator Interaction with Ocean Waves: Studies of a Wave Energy Conversion System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Buoy and Generator Interaction with Ocean Waves: Studies of a Wave Energy Conversion System
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

On March 13th, 2006, the Division of Electricity at Uppsala University deployed its first wave energy converter, L1, in the ocean southwest of Lysekil. L1 consisted of a buoy at the surface, connected through a line to a linear generator on the seabed. Since the deployment, continuous investigations of how L1 works in the waves have been conducted, and several additional wave energy converters have been deployed.

This thesis is based on ten publications, which focus on different aspects of the interaction between wave, buoy, and generator. In order to evaluate different measurement systems, the motion of the buoy was measured optically and using accelerometers, and compared to measurements of the motion of the movable part of the generator - the translator. These measurements were found to correlate well. Simulations of buoy and translator motion were found to match the measured values.

The variation of performance of L1 with changing water levels, wave heights, and spectral shapes was also investigated. Performance is here defined as the ratio of absorbed power to incoming power. It was found that the performance decreases for large wave heights. This is in accordance with the theoretical predictions, since the area for which the stator and the translator overlap decreases for large translator motions. Shifting water levels were predicted to have the same effect, but this could not be seen as clearly.

The width of the wave energy spectrum has been proposed by some as a factor that also affects the performance of a wave energy converter, for a set wave height and period. Therefore the relation between performance and several different parameters for spectral width was investigated. It was found that some of the parameters were in fact correlated to performance, but that the correlation was not very strong.

As a background on ocean measurements in wave energy, a thorough literature review was conducted. It turns out that the Lysekil project is one of quite few projects that have published descriptions of on-site wave energy measurements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 52 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 872
Keyword
Wave power, Measurement systems, Marine technology, Energy conversion, Renewable energy, Energy absorption, Wave resource, Oceanic engineering, Linear generators, Point absorbers, Sea trials, Camera systems, Accelerometers, Offshore experiments
National Category
Energy Engineering Marine Engineering Energy Systems Ocean and River Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-160085 (URN)978-91-554-8192-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-02, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-11-11 Created: 2011-10-14 Last updated: 2012-01-09Bibliographically approved
3. Hydrodynamic Modelling for a Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrodynamic Modelling for a Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converter
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Surface gravity waves in the world’s oceans contain a renewable source of free power on the order of terawatts that has to this date not been commercially utilized. The division of Electricity at Uppsala University is developing a technology to harvest this energy. The technology is a point absorber type wave energy converter based on a direct-driven linear generator placed on the sea bed connected via a line to a buoy on the surface.

The work in this thesis is focused mainly on the energy transport of ocean waves and on increasing the transfer of energy from the waves to the generator and load. Potential linear wave theory is used to describe the ocean waves and to derive the hydrodynamic forces that are exerted on the buoy. Expressions for the energy transport in polychromatic waves travelling over waters of finite depth are derived and extracted from measured time series of wave elevation collected at the Lysekil test site. The results are compared to existing solutions that uses the simpler deep water approximation. A Two-Body system wave energy converter model tuned to resonance in Swedish west coast sea states is developed based on the Lysekil project concept. The first indicative results are derived by using a linear resistive load. The concept is further extended by a coupled hydrodynamic and electromagnetic model with two more realistic non-linear load conditions.

Results show that the use of the deep water approximation gives a too low energy transport in the time averaged as well as in the total instantaneous energy transport. Around the resonance frequency, a Two-Body System gives a power capture ratio of up to 80 percent. For more energetic sea states the power capture ratio decreases rapidly, indicating a smoother power output. The currents in the generator when using the Two-Body system is shown to be more evenly distributed compared to the conventional system, indicating a better utilization of the electrical equipment. Although the resonant nature of the system makes it sensitive to the shape of the wave spectrum, results indicate a threefold increase in annual power production compared to the conventional system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 91 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 878
Keyword
Ocean wave energy, Point absorber, Wave energy converter, Wave energy transport, Polychromatic wave, Linear generator, Resonance, Finite depth, Modelling
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Marine Engineering Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-160319 (URN)978-91-554-8214-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-09, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-10-21 Last updated: 2011-11-23Bibliographically approved
4. Experimental Measurement of Lateral Force in a Submerged Single Heaving Buoy Wave Energy Converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Measurement of Lateral Force in a Submerged Single Heaving Buoy Wave Energy Converter
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The search for new solutions for the generation of energy is becoming more and more important for our future. Big arguments and disagreements on e.g. the questions of gas transport or the dependence on energy supplied by other countries raise demands on the development of new forms of alternative energy resources. Wave power is one of the main sources of renewable energy due to the high power density stored in ocean waves.

Nevertheless, the dynamic forces of waves are so large that serious questions popped up on how to design a system which could work even in an unfavourable wave climate or could at least retain working capabilities after big storms without significant damages.

This thesis studies the reliability of the mechanical parts of a linear direct driven permanent magnet generator. The results of offshore experiment where strain gauge sensors instrumented on the capsule and the inner framework structure are presented. Stress estimation analyses using strain gauges are carried out. A method for measuring forces and moments in the mechanical structure of the WEC is developed.

Evaluation of the lateral force acting on the outer structure is a key factor for the design and construction of the WEC. A method for the measurement of the lateral force acting on the capsule has been developed.

A study of the inclination angle between the Wave Energy Converter and the floating buoy has been carried out.

The aim of this work is to contribute to the development of wave energy conversion system, and especially to the estimation of structural loads which are important for the survivability of the system under hard sea states.

This work is a step that may influence future design of wave energy devices in terms of material aspect, survivability in a hard wave climate and cost-effective renewable energies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 99 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 886
Keyword
Wave energy converter, Tight mooring system, Offshore measurement, Strain gauge, Estimation of stress, Lateral force, Inclination angle, Snatch load
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159519 (URN)978-91-554-8240-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-02-03, Häggsalen, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-01-12 Created: 2011-10-03 Last updated: 2012-01-16Bibliographically approved
5. Experimental results from the Lysekil Wave Power Research Site
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental results from the Lysekil Wave Power Research Site
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents how experimental results, from wave power research performed offshore at the Lysekil research site, were obtained. The data were used to verify theoretical models as well as evaluate the feasibility of wave power as a future sustainable energy source.

The first experiments carried out at the research site was the measurement of the force in a line where one end was connected to a buoy with a diameter of 3 m and the other end to a set of springs with limited stroke length. The system is exposed to high peak forces compared to average forces. The maximum measured force in the line, when the buoy motion is limited by a stiff stopper rope is ten times the average force in that particular sea state.

The experiment performed on the first wave energy converter tested at the Lysekil Research Site is described. The infrastructure of the site is presented where the central connection point is the measuring station. The key finding is that it is possible to transform the motions of ocean waves into electrical energy and distribute it to land.

Many wave energy converters must be interconnected if large amounts of energy are to be harvested from the waves. The first submerged substation intended for aggregation of energy from wave power converters is described, with focus on the measurement and control system placed inside the substation. During this experiment period the generators were equipped with many different sensors; these measurements are explained in the thesis.

The system that aggregates power from the studied wave energy converter is regularly exposed to peak power of up to 20 times the maximum average output from the converter.

Vertical and horizontal movement of the buoy has been measured in different ways. The result is that the vertical displacement of the buoy can be measured with a simple accelerometer circuit but it is much more complicated to measure the horizontal displacement. A special method for measuring the horizontal displacement has been implemented by measuring the strain in the enclosure and the force in the line.

Abstract [sv]

Den här avhandlingen berättar om hur experimenten vid Lysekils forskningsområde för vågkraft har utförts. Insamlade mätdata har använts för att verifiera teoretiska samband som modulerats vid Elektricitetslära, Uppsala universitet. De teoretiska och praktiska resultaten har visat på att vågkraft har förutsättningarna att implementeras som en hållbar framtida energikälla. Intressanta mätmetoder har utvecklas och påfrestningarna  på utrustningin och dess samband med medel effekten har studerats.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 101 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 957
Keyword
Wave power, Lysekil, Marine Substation, Offshore measurement, strain gauge, lateral force, Invlination and azimuth angles, Wave energy converter, Temperature measurements, Inverter, Energy, Control sustem, CompactRIO, Vågkraft, Mätteknik, Styrsystem, Lysekil
National Category
Marine Engineering Energy Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Ocean and River Engineering Control Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179098 (URN)978-91-554-8433-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-09-28, Polhem Å 10134, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Lysekils projektet
Funder
Swedish Research Council, grant no. 621-2009-3417
Available from: 2012-09-05 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2013-01-22
6. Buoy Geometry, Size and Hydrodynamics for Power Take Off Device for Point Absorber Linear Wave Energy Converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Buoy Geometry, Size and Hydrodynamics for Power Take Off Device for Point Absorber Linear Wave Energy Converter
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wave energy converters of point absorber type have been developed and constructed. Full scale experiments have been carried out at sea and electricity has been successfully delivered. Linear permanent magnet generators together with a subsea substation and buoys of various geometric shapes have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The design has in large extent an electronic approach, keeping the mechanical part of it as simple as possible, due to the long life span and reliability of electric components.

Because of the nature of a linear generator, the internal translator with permanent magnets has a limited stroke length which will be reached when the buoy is exposed to large wave heights. Internal springs at the top and bottom of the generator prevent the translator from hitting the generator hull. Inertial forces due to the mass and velocity of the translator and the buoy and its heave added mass compresses the spring. The added mass is a rather large part of the total moving mass. Simulations of a converter with a vertical cylindrical buoy and with a toroidal buoy were conducted, as well as real sea experiments with converters with cylindrical buoys of two different sizes and a toroidal buoy. The overloads are likely to affect the design and service life of the generator, the buoy and the wire which interconnects them.

Buoy shapes with as much excitation force as possible and as little heave added mass as possible were sought. A toroidal buoy caused less overloads on the generator at sea states with short wave periods and relatively large wave height, but for sea states with very long wave periods or extremely high waves, the magnitude of the overloads was mainly determined by the maximum displacement of the buoy.

Snap loads on the interconnecting wire, as the slack wire tensed up after a very deep wave trough, were found to be greater but of the same order of magnitude as forces during the rest of the wave cycle.

During a 4 day period at various wave conditions, two converters with cylindrical buoys proved efficiency between 11.1 % and 24.4 %. The larger buoy had 78 % larger water plane area than the other buoy which resulted in 11 % more power production. Short wave period was beneficial for the power production.

Infinite frequency heave added mass was measured for a cylindrical buoy at real sea and found to be greater than the linearly calculated theoretical added mass.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 71 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1130
Keyword
point absorber, wave, energy, converter, ocean, wec, toroidal, buoy, torus, cylindrical, cylinder, experiment, full scale, trial, sea, energy, renewable
National Category
Energy Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-220344 (URN)978-91-554-8902-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-04-28, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-04-04 Created: 2014-03-13 Last updated: 2014-09-18Bibliographically approved

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