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Neuropsychological Deficits in Relation to Symptoms of ADHD: Independent contributions and interactions
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2009 (English)In: Child Neuropsychology, ISSN 0929-7049, E-ISSN 1744-4136, Vol. 15, no 3, 262-279 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study was to investigate possible independent and combined effects of inhibitory control, delay aversion, and RT variability in relation to symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. A community-based sample of school children (N = 111) completed neuropsychological tasks designed to measure inhibitory control, delay aversion, and RT variability. Behavioral symptoms were measured through parental and teacher ratings of the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and ODD. The results showed that inhibitory control and RT variability were primarily related to symptoms of inattention rather than hyperactivity/impulsivity. Further, out of the three neuropsychological factors studied, only inhibitory control contributed uniquely to the variance of ADHD symptoms. However, significant   interaction effects of delay aversion and RT variability on symptoms of both hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention were found. This study shows the importance of searching for possible combined effects of neuropsychological factors to learn more about the different pathways that lead to ADHD symptoms in children.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 15, no 3, 262-279 p.
Keyword [en]
ADHD symptoms, Inhibitory control, Delay aversion, RT variability
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97907DOI: 10.1080/09297040802524198ISI: 000265291600005PubMedID: 19089681OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-97907DiVA: diva2:173019
Available from: 2008-12-11 Created: 2008-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Specifying the Heterogeneity in Children with ADHD: Symptom Domains, Neuropsychological Processes, and Comorbidity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Specifying the Heterogeneity in Children with ADHD: Symptom Domains, Neuropsychological Processes, and Comorbidity
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Heterogeneity in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms is a well-known phenomenon. Empirically, this heterogeneity is evident in at least three different respects: expression of the two ADHD symptom domains (hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention), neuropsychological impairments, and comorbid behavior problems. The major aim of the present thesis was to examine the heterogeneity characterizing children with ADHD symptoms to enhance our understanding by examining neuropsychological factors with regard to common and independent contributions, and specificity of the two ADHD symptom domains in relation to neuropsychological factors and comorbid behavioral problems. Particular emphasis is placed on prominent neuropsychological processes such as executive functions, state regulation and delay aversion. The present thesis is based on findings from four studies on community-based samples of children – studies involving concurrent and longitudinal designs as well as both categorical and dimensional approaches.

Results provide support for the notion that executive function and state regulation, but not delay aversion, constitute independent pathways to ADHD, primarily to symptoms of inattention. However, delay aversion was shown to have an effect in combination with state regulation on both hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. Additionally, symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention have different primary correlates concerning neuropsychological factors and comorbidity. More specifically, executive function, state regulation, internalizing problems and academic achievement were specifically related to inattention but not to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) was specifically related to hyperactivity/impulsivity, but not to inattention.

The present thesis has contributed with important and new knowledge about the heterogeneity of children with ADHD symptoms concerning neuropsychological pathways, and specificity of the two ADHD symptom domains in relation to neuropsychological factors and comorbid behavioral problems. Knowledge such as this can help us understand how to identify more homogeneous ADHD subgroups, and contribute to the further development of multiple pathway models within this area of research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 101 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 47
Keyword
ADHD, Heterogeneity, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, Neuropsychological Pathways, Comorbidity
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-9485 (URN)978-91-554-7370-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-01-16, Sal IX, Universitetshuset, Uppsala, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-12-11 Created: 2008-12-11 Last updated: 2015-03-20Bibliographically approved

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