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Differences in resting energy expenditure and body composition between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
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2006 (English)In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 114, no 1, 27-35 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective:  A lowered energy metabolism in schizophrenia was reported already in the 1920s. However, these early investigations were case studies without control groups or statistical analysis. In this study the resting energy expenditure (REE) and relevant body composition variables were measured in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Method:  REE was determined in 30 patients and 17 controls. The difference between the measured and the expected level for each individual was calculated as ΔREE. Body composition was assessed with bioelectrical impedance and calliper measurements. Results:  ΔREE was significantly lower in the patients than in the controls. A decrease was also seen in the non-medicated patients. The patients showed significantly lower percentages of water in fat free-mass and intracellular water. Conclusion:  The lowering of REE and body water fractions may suggest a homeostatic aberration in schizophrenia that may be of importance for the understanding of metabolic disturbances observed in the disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 114, no 1, 27-35 p.
Keyword [en]
schizophrenia, energy metabolism, basal metabolism, body composition, body water, weight gain
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97964DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2005.00700.xOAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-97964DiVA: diva2:173099
Available from: 2009-01-01 Created: 2009-01-01 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Physiological Aberrations in Patients with Schizophrenia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physiological Aberrations in Patients with Schizophrenia
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In schizophrenia, subtle aberrations in the brain cause functional disturbances like psychotic symptoms and social disability. There are, however, also disturbances outside the CNS indicating a systemic manifestation in the disease. The aim of the present thesis was to gain deeper understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia with a particular interest in peripheral and systemic manifestations with relevance for the increased risk of obesity and metabolic complications seen in the disease. Therefore, resting energy expenditure (REE), physical capacity, and relevant body composition variables were measured in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Also niacin skin flush response and electrodermal activity (EDA) were studied.

Patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly lower REE expressed as kJ/kg, and also lower values compared with predicted levels than the controls. The difference could not be attributed to medication or variations in body composition between the two groups. There was a gender difference with the lowest levels found in male patients.

Male patients exhibited significantly lower physical capacity in terms of predicted maximal oxygen uptake capacity and faster increase in respiratory quotient than male controls.

The oral niacin test revealed a significantly delayed skin flush reaction in patients compared with controls. The patients also exhibited lower EDA response. There was a significant association in response patterns for the niacin and the EDA tests in the patients, but not in controls.

In a test-retest study in patients there was acceptable stability for EDA measures but low test-retest stability for niacin variables. The previously found association in responses for the two tests was, however, replicated.

The results gain support for the concept of schizophrenia as a disease with systemic manifestations including metabolic dysregulation. The findings add to the understanding of the weight gain and the increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity seen in this condition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 86 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 413
Keyword
Schizophrenia, resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical capacity, oxygen uptake capacity, respiratory quotient, niacin, skin flush reaction, electrodermal activity
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-9521 (URN)978-91-554-7388-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-01-31, Auditorium Minus, Museum Gustavianum, Akademigatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-01-01 Created: 2009-01-01 Last updated: 2012-05-09Bibliographically approved

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