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Atmospheric CO2 variation over the Baltic Sea and the impact on air–sea exchange
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. (Meteorologi)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. (Meteorologi)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. (Meteorologi)
2009 (English)In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 14, no 1, 238-249 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The variability in time and space of the atmospheric molar fraction of CO2 over the Baltic Sea was investigated using data from seven stations from the World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases. The variation on a monthly timescale of CO2 was divided into a global trend, a regional anthropogenic contribution and a natural seasonal cycle. For the Baltic Sea stations the anthropogenic and terrestrial contributions were largest at the coastal sites in the southern Baltic Sea (an offset of 9 ppm), decreasing towards the north over the Baltic Sea (to about 2 ppm). When calculating the air–sea flux of CO2 using the difference in partial pressure between air and sea, uncertainties in the atmospheric molar fraction of CO2 were shown to be of secondary importance as compared with uncertainties in other parameters (< 10%). Realistic uncertainties in the sea surface partial pressure, wind speed or transfer velocity resulted in significantly larger uncertainties in a calculated air–sea flux.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 14, no 1, 238-249 p.
Keyword [en]
Air-sea exchange, carbon dioxide, Baltic Sea, NORTHERN FINLAND, SEASONAL CYCLE, BOREAL SITE, WIND-SPEED, VARIABILITY, PLATFORM, FLUXES, SERIES
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Meteorology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-98566ISI: 000264429500023OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-98566DiVA: diva2:175015
Available from: 2009-02-26 Created: 2009-02-26 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Air-Sea Fluxes of CO2: Analysis Methods and Impact on Carbon Budget
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Air-Sea Fluxes of CO2: Analysis Methods and Impact on Carbon Budget
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas, and the atmospheric concentration of CO2 has increased by more than 100 ppm since prior to the industrial revolution.  The global oceans are considered an important sink of atmospheric CO2, since approximately one third of the anthropogenic emissions are absorbed by the oceans. To be able to model the global carbon cycle and the future climate, it is important to have knowledge of the processes controlling the air-sea exchange of CO2. In this thesis, measurements as well as a model is used in order to increase the knowledge of the exchange processes.

The air-sea flux of CO2 is estimated from high frequency measurements using three methods; one empirical method, and two methods with a solid theoretical foundation. The methods are modified to be applicable for various atmospheric stratifications, and the agreement between methods is good in average.

A new parameterization of the transfer velocity (the rate of transfer across the air-sea interface), is implemented in a Baltic Sea model. The new parameterization includes also the mechanism of water-side convection. The impact of including the new parameterization is relatively small due to feedback processes in the model. The new parameterization is however more representative for flux calculations using in-situ measurement or remote sensing products. When removing the feedback to the model, the monthly average flux increases by up to 20% in some months, compared to when water-side convection is not included.

The Baltic Sea carbon budget was estimated using the Baltic Sea model, and the Baltic Sea was found to be a net sink of CO2. This is consistent with some previous studies, while contradictory to others. The dissimilarity between studies indicates the difficulty in estimating the carbon budget mainly due to variations of the CO2 uptake/release in time and space. Local variations not captured by the model, such as coastal upwelling, give uncertainties to the model. Coastal upwelling can alter the uptake/release of CO2 in a region by up to 250%. If upwelling would be included in the model, the Baltic Sea might be considered a smaller sink of CO2.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 47 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1020
Keyword
air-sea exchange, carbon dioxide, Baltic Sea, eddy-covariance method, inertial dissipation method, cospectral-peak method, Baltic Sea measurements, CO2 fluxes, Galathea 3 expedition, Baltic Sea modeling, water-side convection, coastal upwelling, carbon budget
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Meteorology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-194960 (URN)978-91-554-8599-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-04-05, Hambergsalen, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-03-14 Created: 2013-02-20 Last updated: 2013-04-02Bibliographically approved

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Rutgersson, AnnaNorman, Maria

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