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Heparan sulfate accumulation with Abeta deposits in Alzheimer's disease and Tg2576 mice is contributed by glial cells
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3117-5367
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
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2008 (English)In: Brain Pathology, ISSN 1015-6305, E-ISSN 1750-3639, Vol. 18, no 4, 548-561 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) plaques, one of the major neuropathological lesions in Alzheimer's disease (AD), can be broadly subdivided into two morphological categories: neuritic and diffuse. Heparan sulfate (HS) and HS proteoglycans (HSPGs) are codeposits of multiple amyloidoses, including AD. Although HS has been considered a limiting factor in the initiation of amyloid deposition, the pathological implications of HS in Abeta deposits of AD remain unclear. In this study, immunohistochemistry combined with fluorescence and confocal microscopy was employed to gain deeper insight into the accumulation of HS with Abeta plaques in sporadic and familial AD. Here we demonstrate that HS preferentially accumulated around the Abeta40 dense cores of neuritic plaques, but was largely absent from diffuse Abeta42 plaques, suggesting that Abeta42 deposition may occur independently of HS. A codeposition pattern of HS with Abeta deposits in Tg2576 mice was also examined. We identified the membrane-bound HSPGs, glypican-1 (GPC1) and syndecan-3 (SDC3), in glial cells associated with Abeta deposits, proximal to sites of HS accumulation. In mouse primary glial cultures, we observed increased levels of GPC1 and SDC3 following Abeta stimulation. These results suggest that HS codeposits with Abeta40 in neuritic plaques and is mainly derived from glial cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 18, no 4, 548-561 p.
Keyword [en]
b-Amyloid, glial cells, heparan sulfate
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-98662DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3639.2008.00152.xISI: 000259146700009PubMedID: 18422760OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-98662DiVA: diva2:200958
Available from: 2009-03-02 Created: 2009-03-02 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Roles of Heparan Sulfate in Amyloid-β Pathology and Hypoxia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Roles of Heparan Sulfate in Amyloid-β Pathology and Hypoxia
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a highly sulfated polysaccharide expressed on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, interacting with a large number of proteins. HS is implicated in human diseases, including different types of cancer and amyloid diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aims of this thesis were to gain deeper insights into AD and cancer progression by elucidating the roles of HS in amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology and hypoxia.

The toxic Aβ-peptide is a key molecule in AD due to its ability to aggregate and form amyloid plaques in the brains of diseased patients. It has been reported that HS accumulates with Aβ in these amyloid plaques. We have found that HS is differentially accumulated with Aβ species within the amyloid plaques in the brains of AD patients. We also identified that the HS in the plaques originated from glial cells. Further, we investigated the role of HS in Aβ toxicity using cell models that either lack HS or express abnormal HS. The results show that cell surface HS mediates Aβ internalization and cytotoxicity.

Upregulation of heparanase, an endo-glucuronidase that specifically cleaves HS chains, in human cancers increases the potential of tumor cells to metastasize. Spalax, an animal model for hypoxic tolerance, expresses high levels of heparanase. Analysis of HS from different Spalax organs revealed a high sulfation degree and an atypical domain structure, likely modulated by high heparanase expression in the organs. Cells cultured under hypoxic conditions showed a similar HS domain structure and had an increase in heparanase mRNA. We propose that hypoxia-induced heparanase expression is relevant for tumor progression, a process often associated with oxygen deficiency.

Altogether, the findings in this thesis are important for future development of therapeutics aiming at interfering with HS functions in AD and cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 55 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 628
Keyword
Heparan sulfate, Alzheimer's disease, Aβ, Proteoglycan, Heparanase, Amyloid, Hypoxia, Cancer, Spalax
National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Research subject
Medical Biochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-133688 (URN)978-91-554-7963-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-01-22, C10:305, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-12-16 Created: 2010-11-15 Last updated: 2011-01-13
2. Heparan Sulfate in the Amyloidosis and Inflammation of Alzheimer’s Disease
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heparan Sulfate in the Amyloidosis and Inflammation of Alzheimer’s Disease
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, with extensive evidence implicating the misfolding, aggregation and deposition of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide as central to the pathogenesis. Heparan sulfate (HS) is an interactive glycosaminoglycan, attached to core proteins as HS proteoglycans (HSPGs). HSPGs are present on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix where they facilitate multiple signaling functions, but HS is also consistently present in all amyloid deposits, including those of AD. In amyloidosis HS has been studied as an aggregation template, promoting fibril formation and serving a scaffold function in the resulting deposits. The objective of this thesis was to assess how cell surface HS is potentially implicated in Aβ amyloidosis and the associated neuroinflammation of AD.  

In AD brain we determined that HS predominantly accumulated in Aβ deposits with dense cores and found glial-expressed HSPGs within these deposits. Aβ elevated HSPG levels in primary glial cultures, implicating activated glia as one source of the Aβ-associated HS. Next, we determined that microglial HSPGs are critical for the upregulation of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α following exposure to lipopolysaccharide, an established inflammatory insult. Together these results raise the possibility that Aβ-induced expression of microglial HSPGs may promote neuroinflammation.  

Multiple mechanisms of Aβ toxicity have been proposed and different Aβ assemblies exert their toxicity through alternative routes. We found that three different preparations of Aβ aggregates all exhibited HS-dependent cytotoxicity, which in part correlated with Aβ internalization. Furthermore, heparin treatment attenuated Aβ cytotoxicity and uptake. In Aβ-positive AD microvasculature, HS deposited with Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and its receptor, the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). In cell culture, HS and LRP1 co-operated in Aβ interactions and the addition of ApoE increased the levels of cell-associated Aβ in a HS- and LRP1-dependent manner. This ApoE-mediated increase in cell-associated Aβ may promote toxicity and vascular degeneration, but equally HS-mediated internalization of Aβ could represent a clearance route across the blood-brain-barrier.

The findings presented here illustrate multiple roles for cell-surface HSPGs in interactions relevant to the pathogenesis of AD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 72 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 710
Keyword
Alzheimer’s disease, amyloidosis, amyloid-β, apolipoprotein E, astrocytes, glia, heparanase, heparan sulfate, heparan sulfate proteoglycans, microglia, neuroinflammation
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology Neurosciences
Research subject
Geriatrics; Cell Research; Neuroscience; Pathology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159927 (URN)978-91-554-8183-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-11-24, Rudbecksalen, Rudbeck Laboratory, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 20, 75185, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-11-02 Created: 2011-10-11 Last updated: 2016-04-06Bibliographically approved

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O'Callaghan, PaulSandwall, ElinaLi, Jin-Ping

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