Heparan sulfate biosynthesis enzymes EXT1 and EXT2 affect NDST1 expression and heparan sulfate sulfation
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 105, no 12, 4751-4756 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans influence embryonic development and adult physiology through interactions with protein ligands. The interactions depend on HS structure, which is determined largely during biosynthesis by Golgi enzymes. How biosynthesis is regulated is more or less unknown. During polymerization of the HS chain, carried out by a complex of the exostosin proteins EXT1 and EXT2, the first modification enzyme, glucosaminyl N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (NDST), introduces N-sulfate groups into the growing polymer. Unexpectedly, we found that the level of expression of EXT1 and EXT2 affected the amount of NDST1 present in the cell, which, in turn, greatly influenced HS structure. Whereas overexpression of EXT2 in HEK 293 cells enhanced NDST1 expression, increased NDST1 N-glycosylation, and resulted in elevated HS sulfation, overexpression of EXT1 had opposite effects. Accordingly, heart tissue from transgenic mice overexpressing EXT2 showed increased NDST activity. Immunoprecipitaion experiments suggested an interaction between EXT2 and NDST1. We speculate that NDST1 competes with EXT1 for binding to EXT2. Increased NDST activity in fibroblasts with a gene trap mutation in EXT1 supports this notion. These results support a model in which the enzymes of HS biosynthesis form a complex, or a GAGosome.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 105, no 12, 4751-4756 p.
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-98897DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0705807105ISI: 000254772700040PubMedID: 18337501OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-98897DiVA: diva2:201498