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The amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) genome contains a highly diversified set of G protein-coupled receptors
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
2008 (English)In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 8, 9- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the largest families of genes in mammals. Branchiostoma floridae (amphioxus) is one of the species most closely related species to vertebrates. RESULTS: Mining and phylogenetic analysis of the amphioxus genome showed the presence of at least 664 distinct GPCRs distributed among all the main families of GPCRs; Glutamate (18), Rhodopsin (570), Adhesion (37), Frizzled (6) and Secretin (16). Surprisingly, the Adhesion GPCR repertoire in amphioxus includes receptors with many new domains not previously observed in this family. We found many Rhodopsin GPCRs from all main groups including many amine and peptide binding receptors and several previously uncharacterized expansions were also identified. This genome has however no genes coding for bitter taste receptors (TAS2), the sweet and umami (TAS1), pheromone (VR1 or VR2) or mammalian olfactory receptors. CONCLUSION: The amphioxus genome is remarkably rich in various GPCR subtypes while the main GPCR groups known to sense exogenous substances (such as Taste 2, mammalian olfactory, nematode chemosensory, gustatory, vomeronasal and odorant receptors) in other bilateral species are absent.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 8, 9- p.
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-99148DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-9ISI: 000253541900001PubMedID: 18199322OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-99148DiVA: diva2:202285
Available from: 2009-03-09 Created: 2009-03-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Characterization and Evolution of Transmembrane Proteins with Focus on G-protein coupled receptors in Pre-vertebrate Species
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization and Evolution of Transmembrane Proteins with Focus on G-protein coupled receptors in Pre-vertebrate Species
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the largest protein families in mammals. GPCRs are instrumental for hormonal and neurotransmitter signalling and are important in all major physiological systems of the body. Paper I describes the repertoire of GPCRs in Branchiostoma floridae, which is one of the species most closely related species to vertebrates. Mining and phylogenetic analysis of the amphioxus genome showed the presence of at least 664 distinct GPCRs distributed among all the main families of GPCRs; Glutamate (18), Rhodopsin (570), Adhesion (37), Frizzled (6) and Secretin (16). Paper II contains studies of the Adhesion, Methuselah and Secretin GPCR families in nine genomes. The Adhesion GPCRs are the most complex gene family among GPCRs with large genomic size, multiple introns and a fascinating flora of functional domains. Phylogenetic analysis showed Adhesion group V (that contains GPR133 and GPR144) to be the closest relative to the Secretin family among the groups in the Adhesion family, which was also supported by splice site setup and conserved motifs. Paper III examines the repertoire of human transmembrane proteins. These form key nodes in mediating the cell’s interaction with the surroundings, which is one of the main reasons why the majority of drug targets are membrane proteins. We identified 6,718 human membrane proteins and classified the majority of them into 234 families of which 151 belong to the three major functional groups; Receptors (63 groups, 1,352 members), Transporters (89 groups, 817 members) or Enzymes (7 groups, 533 members). In addition, 74 Miscellaneous groups were shown to include 697 members. Paper IV clarifies the hierarchy of the main families and evolutionary origin of majority of the metazoan GPCR families. Overall, it suggests common decent of at least 97% of the GPCRs sequences found in humans, including all the main families.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2010. 42 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 548
Keyword
G protein-coupled receptors, GPCR, Membrane protein, Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Secretin, Evolution, Bioinformatics, Phylogeny
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
Research subject
Bioinformatics; Biology with specialization in Molecular Evolution
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-121696 (URN)978-91-554-7773-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-05-15, B42, BMC, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-04-23 Created: 2010-03-27 Last updated: 2010-04-23Bibliographically approved

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