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Phylogenetic systematics of Glassfrogs (Amphibia: Centrolenidae) and their sister taxon Allophryne ruthveni
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
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2009 (English)In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, no 2100, 1-97 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Based on a molecular phylogeny, a new phylogenetic taxonomy that is compatible with both the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) and the PhyloCode is proposed for Glassfrogs and their sister taxon, Allophryne ruthveni. The arrangement presented herein emphasizes the recognition of clades having (i) significant statistical support and congruence among phylogenetic estimation methods (i.e., parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference criteria), (ii) congruence among genetic markers, and (iii) morphological and/or behavioral distinctiveness. Also, when previously recognized groups are recovered as monophyletic or nearly monophyletic, we propose taxa that minimize the number of name changes required to make these groups monophyletic, preserving the names and contents of previous classifications (i.e., nomenclatural stability). The evolutionary proximity of Centrolenidae and Allophrynidae is recognized by combining these families into an unraked taxon, Allocentroleniae-a proposal that maintains the traditional names and species contents of Centrolenidae and Allophrynidae. We arrange centrolenid diversity in two subfamilies: Centroleninae and Hyalinobatrachinae. Within Centroleninae, the diagnosis and species content of the genera Centrolene, Cochranella, and Nymphargus are modified; Teratohyla is resurrected and modified, and Chimerella, Espadarana, Rulyrana, Sachatamia, and Vitreorana are proposed as new genera. The other subfamily, Hyalinobatrachinae, contains the new genus Celsiella and a modified Hyalinobatrachium that fully corresponds to the former fleischmanni Group. Additionally, the genus Ikakogi is described. Ikakogi could not be assigned with confidence to either subfamily and it is placed as incertae sedis in Centrolenidae. The data at hand suggest that Ikakogi tayrona is a lineage as old as the subfamilies Hyalinobatrachinae and Centroleninae. The revised taxonomy differs markedly from previous arrangements, which were based on phenetics and few morphological characters. Most of the genera defined herein are confined to distinct biogeographic regions, highlighting the importance of geography in the speciation of Glassfrogs. The principal limitation of this proposal is that it is based on an incomplete sampling of taxa (54% of the recognized Glassfrogs). Although diagnoses are based on phenotypic traits, there are several cases (16% of all species) in which the allocation of species is ambiguous because of morphological homoplasy and the lack of molecular data. Finally, in an attempt to facilitate species identification, comparison, and generic placement, we provide photographs for most (similar to 96%) of the recognized centrolenid species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. no 2100, 1-97 p.
National Category
Biological Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-100915ISI: 000266232500001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-100915DiVA: diva2:211267
Available from: 2009-04-13 Created: 2009-04-13 Last updated: 2011-01-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Species Limits, and Evolutionary History of Glassfrogs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Species Limits, and Evolutionary History of Glassfrogs
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Recognizing the mechanisms of speciation and the limits of species is essential to understand the origin of biodiversity and how to conserve it. The general aims of my investigations during my doctoral studies were two-fold: to study evolutionary patterns and processes, and to provide specific and superspecific taxonomic classifications that try to reflect evolutionary history. I have focused my research on anurans in their biodiversity hotspot, the American Tropics.

I have used morphological, behavioral (mating calls), and genetic (DNA sequences) characters to study species boundaries between frogs of the genus Pristimantis and the family Centrolenidae (glassfrogs). The results show that the exclusive use of single lines of evidence or the application of arbitrary thresholds impair and bias our ability to recognize new species and limit the possibility to understand evolutionary processes. Only an integrative approach combining every source of evidence provides the necessary feedback to discover all species and test their identity by comparing independent sets of data. This approach further allows identifying those species that probably represent stable comparative units (well supported species hypotheses) and to flag taxa that require further assessment.

Phylogenetic reconstructions based on seven nuclear and mitochondrial genes for about 100 species of glassfrogs revealed that previous hypotheses of relationships were mislead by rampant convergent evolution at the phenotypic level. None of the previously suggested classifications fit with the reconstructed evolutionary history. Consequently, we proposed a new classification consistent with this phylogeny.

I also studied the tempo and mode of diversification among glassfrogs. Based on sequences from ten genes in 87 species, I estimated species divergence times, age-range correlation between sister species, and reconstructed ancestral areas and dispersal/vicariance events. The results revealed a complex model of diversification where geographical isolation seems to be the dominant scenario for speciation and only clades of altitudinal generalists have been able to spread across the Neotropical rainforests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 55 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 642
Amphibia, Anura, Biogeography, Centrolenidae, Diversification, Frogs, Molecular Phylogenetics, Neotropics, Pristimantis, Speciation, Species, Systematics, Taxonomy
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-100923 (URN)978-91-554-7515-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-05-26, Zootissalen, EBC, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Available from: 2009-05-05 Created: 2009-04-13 Last updated: 2009-05-28Bibliographically approved

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