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Constructing load profiles for household electricity and hot water from time-use data-Modelling approach and validation
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. (Built Environment Energy Systems Group (BEESG))
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University.
School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University.
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2009 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 41, no 7, 753-768 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Time-use data, describing in detail the everyday life of household members as high-resolved activity sequences, have a largely unrealized potential of contributing to domestic energy demand modelling. A model for computation of daily electricity and hot-water demand profiles from time-use data was developed, using simple conversion schemes, mean appliance and water-tap data and general daylight availability distributions. Validation against detailed, end-use specific electricity measurements in a small sample of households reveals that the model for household electricity reproduces hourly load patterns with preservation of important qualitative features. The output from the model, when applied to a large data set of time use in Sweden, also shows correspondence to aggregate profiles for both household electricity and hot water from recent Swedish measurement surveys. Deviations on individual household level are predominantly due to occasionally ill-reported time-use data and on aggregate population level due to slightly non-representative samples. Future uses and developments are identified and it is suggested that modelling energy use from time-use data could be an alternative, or a complement, to energy demand measurements in households.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 41, no 7, 753-768 p.
Keyword [en]
Hot water, Household electricity, Load modelling, Load profiles, Time-use data
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-101288DOI: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.02.013ISI: 000266769500007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-101288DiVA: diva2:212447
Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13
In thesis
1. Domestic Heating with Solar Thermal: Studies of Technology in a Social Context and Social Components in Technical Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Domestic Heating with Solar Thermal: Studies of Technology in a Social Context and Social Components in Technical Studies
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Research in solar heating has traditionally focused solely on increasing the system efficiency by improving the technical components. In this thesis the technical methodology and system boundaries are widened to connect the technical aspects with market actors that are highly influential on the implementation of solar technology.

The research was focused on how social aspects can be brought into technical studies to improve the understanding of solar heating, and how solar thermal technology can be optimized in a larger energy system. Both heat storage and different system solutions have been investigated. The thesis is built on a number of sub-projects exploring different aspects of solar heating.

Improved components and system configurations may result in higher fractional energy savings and thereby make solar energy go from a marginal contribution to be the main energy supplier. Both components and systems are considered in this thesis. The solar heating technology has been shown to work well, also in unique system solutions. Technical possibilities with medium-sized stores for single-family houses and seasonal stores for residential areas are presented. Methods to bring studies of technology and actor studies together are also proposed; domestic hot water use has been modelled based on time-use data, while a multifaceted market situation, in which new system solutions must find their way, has been described by the solar and pellet industries. The complexity of assessing installation and use of a particular heating system in relation to the overall energy system is also discussed.

Overall, this thesis shows that successful use of solar heating does not only come down to proper technical solutions, but also depends on the interaction between technology and market actors. A widened perspective, including the social context in which the heating system appears, is then essential. This thesis constitutes a step in that direction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 101 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 645
Series
Keyword
solar heating, solar energy, heating system, social components, market actors, interdisciplinary, heat storage, system solution, energy system, hot water, load profiles, socio-technical
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
engineering science with specialization in microsystems technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-101325 (URN)978-91-554-7531-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-06-05, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-05-13 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2009-05-13Bibliographically approved
2. System Studies and Simulations of Distributed Photovoltaics in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System Studies and Simulations of Distributed Photovoltaics in Sweden
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) capacity is increasing worldwide, mainly due to extensive subsidy schemes for renewable electricity generation. A majority of newly installed systems are distributed small-scale systems located in distribution grids, often at residential customers. Recent developments suggest that such distributed PV generation (PV-DG) could gain more interest in Sweden in the near future. With prospects of decreasing system prices, an extensive integration does not seem impossible.

In this PhD thesis the opportunities for utilisation of on-site PV generation and the consequences of a widespread introduction are studied. The specific aims are to improve modelling of residential electricity demand to provide a basis for simulations, to study load matching and grid interaction of on-site PV and to add to the understanding of power system impacts.

Time-use data (TUD) provided a realistic basis for residential load modelling. Both a deterministic and a stochastic approach for generating different types of end-use profiles were developed. The models are capable of realistically reproducing important electric load properties such as diurnal and seasonal variations, short time-scale fluctuations and random load coincidence.

The load matching capability of residential on-site PV was found to be low by default but possible to improve to some extent by different measures. Net metering reduces the economic effects of the mismatch and has a decisive impact on the production value and on the system sizes that are reasonable to install for a small-scale producer.

Impacts of large-scale PV-DG on low-voltage (LV) grids and on the national power system were studied. Power flow studies showed that voltage rise in LV grids is not a limiting factor for integration of PV-DG. Variability and correlations with large-scale wind power were determined using a scenario for large-scale building-mounted PV. Profound impacts on the power system were found only for the most extreme scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2010. 110 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 781
Keyword
Photovoltaics, Solar energy, Distributed generation, Load modelling, Time-use data, Markov chain, Power flow, Power system
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-132907 (URN)978-91-554-7931-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-12-10, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Felaktigt tryckt som Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 711Available from: 2010-11-18 Created: 2010-10-28 Last updated: 2011-03-21Bibliographically approved

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Widén, JoakimWäckelgård, Ewa

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