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Potential controlled anion absorption in a novel high surface area composite of Cladophora cellulose and polypyrrole
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. (oorganisk kemi)
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2009 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 54, no 12, 3394-3401 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The electrochemical properties of a novel composite paper material of high surface area consisting of polypyrrole (PPy) deposited on cellulose derived from Cladophora sp. algae have been investigated in electrolytes containing different concentrations of nitrate, chloride and p-toluene sulfonate, as well as in solutions containing both p-toluene sulfonate and chloride. The oxidation mechanism and the dependence of the oxidation behavior of the polypyrrole, which was obtained by oxidation of pyrrole with iron(III) chloride, on the anion type and concentration have been studied. Current nucleation maxima, appearing at different times depending on the anion concentration, were obtained during the oxidation of the reduced polymers as a result of the combined action of the formation and growth of conducting polymer strands and anion diffusion. No loss of capacity was seen during repeated oxidation and reduction of the polymer indicating that trapping of anions in the reduced polymer did not limit the electroactivity of the present material. The latter can be explained by the thin polymer layer present on the cellulose substrate. During the oxidation of the polymer, the anions most likely first cover most of the surface of the composite before diffusing into the bulk of the polymer. The estimated distance between these surface sites was also found to match the size of the anions. For electrolytes containing a mixture of anions, the oxidation charge depends on the concentration and size of the different anions.

The combination of the thin polymer coating and the large specific surface area of the composite give rise to a high ion absorption capacity even for large anions. Hence, the investigated material should be well-suited for use in biotechnological applications involving, e.g., desalting and extraction of proteins and DNA from biological samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd , 2009. Vol. 54, no 12, 3394-3401 p.
Keyword [en]
Polypyrrole, Cladophora cellulose, Oxidation, Anion exchange, Nucleation, Diffusion, Nitrate, Chloride and p-toluene sulfonate
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials; Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-102117DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2009.01.010ISI: 000265011700021OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-102117DiVA: diva2:214374
Available from: 2009-05-05 Created: 2009-05-05 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Development of Cellulose-Based, Nanostructured, Conductive Paper for Biomolecular Extraction and Energy Storage Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Cellulose-Based, Nanostructured, Conductive Paper for Biomolecular Extraction and Energy Storage Applications
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Conductive paper materials consisting of conductive polymers and cellulose are promising for high-tech applications (energy storage and biosciences) due to outstanding aspects of environmental friendliness, mechanical flexibility, electrical conductivity and efficient electroactive behavior. Recently, a conductive composite paper material was developed by covering the individual nanofibers of cellulose from the green algae Cladophora with a polypyrrole (PPy) layer. The PPy-Cladophora cellulose composite paper is featured with high surface area (80 m2 g-1), electronic conductivity (~2 S cm-1), thin conductive layer (~50 nm) and easily up-scalable manufacturing process. This doctoral thesis reports the development of the PPy-Cladophora composite as an electrode material in electrochemically controlled solid phase ion-exchange of biomolecules and all-polymer based energy storage devices. First, electrochemical ion-exchange properties of the PPy-Cladophora cellulose composite were investigated in electrolytes containing three different types of anions, and it was found that smaller anions (nitrate and chloride) are more readily extracted by the composite than lager anions (p-toluene sulfonate). The influence of differently sized oxidants used during polymerization on the anion extraction capacity of the composite was also studied. The composites synthesized with two different oxidizing agents, i.e. iron (III) chloride and phosphomolybdic acid (PMo), were investigated for their ability to extract anions of different sizes. It was established that the number of absorbed ions was larger for the iron (III) chloride-synthesized sample than for the PMo-synthesized sample for all four electrolytes studied. Further, PPy-Cladophora cellulose composites have shown remarkable electrochemically controlled ion extraction capacities when investigated as a solid phase extraction material for batch-wise extraction and release of DNA oligomers. In addition, composite paper was also investigated as an electrode material in the symmetric non-metal based energy storage devices. The salt and paper based energy storage devices exhibited charge capacities (38−50 mAh g−1) with reasonable cycling stability, thereby opening new possibilities for the production of environmentally friendly, cost efficient, up-scalable and lightweight energy storage systems. Finally, micron-sized chopped carbon fibers (CCFs) were incorporated as additives to improve the charge-discharge rates of paper-based energy storage devices and to enhance the DNA release efficiency. The results showed the independent cell capacitances of ~60-70 F g-1 (upto current densities of 99 mA cm2) and also improved the efficiency of DNA release from 25 to 45%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 65 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 852
Keyword
Polypyrrole, Cladophora cellulose, Conductive paper, Electrochemically controlled ion-exchange, DNA extraction, Paper-based energy storage devices, Chopped Carbon fibers
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-158444 (URN)978-91-554-8150-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-10-21, Polhemsalen, Ångström laboratory, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2011-09-30 Created: 2011-09-07 Last updated: 2011-11-03Bibliographically approved

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Mihranyan, AlbertRazaq, AamirStrömme, Maria

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