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Relationships between serum fatty acid composition and multiple markers of inflammation and endothelial function in an elderly population
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
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2009 (English)In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 203, no 1, 298-303 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA) composition in serum has been associated with C-reactive protein (CRP), but associations with other markers of inflammation and endothelial function, e.g. adhesion molecules are unknown. We recently suggested a possible role of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl coenzymeA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) in inflammation. This study investigates the associations between serum FA composition, including SCD-1 index, and various inflammatory and endothelial function markers. METHODS: 264 Swedish men and women aged 70 years participated in this cross-sectional population-based study. FA composition was measured in serum cholesteryl esters and was correlated to inflammatory markers (CRP, interleukin [IL]-2, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, vascular cellular adhesion molecule [VCAM]-1, intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, L-selectin, interferon-gamma, and monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1), using linear regression analysis. SCD-1 activity was estimated by FA product-to-precursor ratio (16:1/16:0). RESULTS: Serum FA composition was significantly associated with CRP and E-selectin but not with other inflammatory markers. After adjusting for BMI, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and lipid-lowering therapy, the proportion of palmitoleic acid and SCD-1 index were positively correlated with CRP concentrations (P=0.003 and P=0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: A FA composition reflecting high intake of saturated fat and a high SCD-1 index is independently related to CRP concentrations, but not to other markers of inflammation and endothelial function in this population of elderly men and women. Given the absent association between FA composition and the other markers, CRP may be the preferable marker to use when investigating potential relationships between FAs and low-grade inflammation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 203, no 1, 298-303 p.
Keyword [en]
Fatty acids, Inflammation, Endothelial function, SCD-1, C-reactive protein, Adhesion molecules
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-103687DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.06.020ISI: 000264510700045PubMedID: 18687433OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-103687DiVA: diva2:218624
Available from: 2009-05-20 Created: 2009-05-20 Last updated: 2011-08-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammation: Observational and Interventional Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammation: Observational and Interventional Studies
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Dietary fat quality influences the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A low-grade inflammation is suggested to contribute to the disease development, often accompanied by obesity. Whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been considered anti-inflammatory, n-6 PUFA have been proposed to act pro-inflammatory. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) act pro-inflammatory in vitro.

This thesis aimed to investigate effects of different fatty acids on low-grade inflammation in observational and interventional studies. In Paper I and II, fatty acid composition in serum cholesterol esters was used as objective marker of dietary fat quality and related to serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and other circulating inflammatory markers in two population-based cohorts, conducted in middle-aged men and elderly men and women, respectively. In Paper III and IV, the impact of diets differing in fat quality on inflammation and oxidative stress was investigated in randomised controlled studies, in subjects with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity.

In Paper I and II, a low proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) in serum was associated with higher CRP concentrations, indicating that a low intake of vegetable fats may be related to low-grade inflammation. High CRP concentrations were also associated with high proportions of palmitoleic (16:1) and oleic (18:1) acids and high stearoyl coenzymeA desaturase index, possibly reflecting altered fat metabolism and/or high SFA intake in this population. When comparing two high-fat diets rich in either saturated or monounsaturated fat, and two low-fat diets with or without long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation during 12 weeks (Paper III), no differences in inflammation or oxidative stress markers were observed. Moreover, a 10-week intervention (Paper IV) with high linoleic acid intake showed no adverse effects on inflammation or oxidative stress. Instead, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 decreased after linoleic acid intake compared with a diet high in SFA.

The results in this thesis indicate that dietary n-6 PUFA found in vegetable fats is associated with lower inflammation marker levels, and to some extent reduces systemic inflammation when compared with SFA. Supplementation of n-3 PUFA did not exert any systemic anti-inflammatory effects, maybe due to a relatively low dose.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 75 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 683
Dietary fat, Fatty acids, Serum fatty acid composition, Linoleic acid, Stearoyl coenzymeA desaturase, SCD-1, Inflammation, C-reactive protein, Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation, Isoprostanes, Prostaglandins, Obesity, Epidemiology, Dietary intervention, Metabolic syndrome
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Immunology in the medical area Endocrinology and Diabetes Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Medical Science
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-156074 (URN)978-91-554-8112-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-09-14, Sal IV, Universitetshuset, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Available from: 2011-08-24 Created: 2011-07-11 Last updated: 2011-12-06

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