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3D baseline seismics at Ketzin, Germany: The CO2SINK project
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam Germany.
GEUS, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Vibrometric Oy,Vantaa, Finland..
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2007 (English)In: Geophysics, ISSN 0016-8033, E-ISSN 1942-2156, Vol. 72, no 5, B121-B132 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A 3D 25-fold seismic survey with a bin size of 12 by 12 m and about 12 km(2) of subsurface coverage was acquired in 2005 near a former natural gas storage site west of Berlin, as part of the five-year EU funded CO2SINK project. Main objectives of the seismic survey were to verify earlier geologic interpretations of structure based on vintage 2D seismic and borehole data and to map, if possible, the reservoir pathways in which the CO2 Will be injected at 650 m depth, as well as providing a baseline for future seismic surveys and planning of drilling operations. The uppermost 1000 m are well imaged and show an anticlinal structure with an east-west striking central graben on its top that extendsdown to the target horizon. About 30 m of throw is seen on the bounding faults. No faults are imaged near the planned drill sites. Remnant gas, cushion and residual gas, is present near the top of the anticline in the depth interval of about 250-400 m and has a clear seismic signature; both higher amplitudes in the reservoir horizons and velocity pulldown are observed. Amplitude mapping of these remnant gas horizons shows that they do not extend as far south as the injection site, which is located on the southern flank of the anticline. Amplitude anomalies, gas chimneys along an east-west striking fault, show that the stored or remnant gas either has been or is presently migrating out of the reservoir formations. Summed amplitude mapping of the planned injection horizon indicates that this lithologically heterogeneous formation may be more porous at the injection site.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tulsa, United States: Society of Exploration Geophysicists , 2007. Vol. 72, no 5, B121-B132 p.
Keyword [en]
3D seismic, Seismic baseline, CO2 injection, CO2SINK Project, Ketzin
National Category
Physical Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Geophysics with specialization in Solid Earth Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-104141DOI: 10.1190/1.2754667ISI: 000249683600007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-104141DiVA: diva2:219407
Projects
CO2SINK Project
Available from: 2009-05-27 Created: 2009-05-27 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Seismic Investigations at the Ketzin CO2 Injection Site, Germany: Applications to Subsurface Feature Mapping and CO2 Seismic Response Modeling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seismic Investigations at the Ketzin CO2 Injection Site, Germany: Applications to Subsurface Feature Mapping and CO2 Seismic Response Modeling
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

3D seismic data are widely used for many different purposes. Despite different objectives, a common goal in almost all 3D seismic programs is to attain better understanding of the subsurface features. In gas injection projects, which are mainly for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and recently for environmental purposes, seismic data have an important role in the gas monitoring phase. This thesis deals with a 3D seismic investigation at the CO2 injection site at Ketzin, Germany. I focus on two critical aspects of the project: the internal architecture of the heterogeneous Stuttgart reservoir and the detectability of the CO2 response from surface seismic data.

Conventional seismic methods are not able to conclusively map the internal reservoir architecture due to their limited seismic resolution. In order to overcome this limitation, I use the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) decomposition technique, which provides frequency spectra with high temporal resolution without the disadvantages of the windowing process associated with the other techniques. Results from applying this technique reveal more of the details of sand bodies within the Stuttgart Formation. The CWT technique also helps to detect and map remnant gas on the top of the structure. In addition to this method, I also show that the pre-stack spectral blueing method, which is presented for the first time in this research, has an ability to enhance seismic resolution with fewer artifacts in comparison with the post-stack spectral blueing method.

The second objective of this research is to evaluate the CO2 response on surface seismic data as a feasibility study for CO2 monitoring. I build a rock physics model to estimate changes in elastic properties and seismic velocities caused by injected CO2. Based on this model, I study the seismic responses for different CO2 injection geometries and saturations using one dimensional (1D) elastic modeling and two dimensional (2D) acoustic finite-difference modeling. Results show that, in spite of random and coherent noises and reservoir heterogeneity, the CO2 seismic response should be strong enough to be detectable on surface seismic data. I use a similarity-based image registration method to isolate amplitude changes due to the reservoir from amplitude changes caused by time shifts below the reservoir. In support of seismic monitoring using surface seismic data, I also show that acoustic impedance versus Poisson’s ratio cross-plot is a suitable attribute for distinguishing gas-bearing sands from brine-bearing sands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 73 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 657
Keyword
Seismic resolution, Spectral blueing, CO2 seismic response, Continuous Wavelet Transform Decomposition, 3D seismic baseline, CO2SINK project
National Category
Geophysics
Research subject
Geophysics Specialized In Solid Earth
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-105032 (URN)978-91-554-7557-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-09-01, Axel Hambergsalen Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
CO2SINK Project
Available from: 2009-06-04 Created: 2009-05-31 Last updated: 2009-06-15

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Juhlin, Christopher

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