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Monitoring CO2 response on surface seismic data; a rock physics and seismic modeling feasibility study at the CO2 sequestration site, Ketzin, Germany
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
The University of Texas at Austin.
2010 (English)In: Journal of Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0926-9851, E-ISSN 1879-1859, Vol. 71, no 4, 109-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An important component of any CO2 sequestration project is seismic monitoring for tracking changes in subsurface physical properties such as velocity and density. Reservoir conditions and CO2 injection quantities govern whether such changes may be observable as a function of time. Here we investigate surface seismic response to CO2 injection at the Ketzin site, the first European onshore CO2 sequestration pilot study dealing with research on geological storage of CO2. First, a rock-physics model was built to evaluate the effect of injected CO2 on the seismic velocity. On the basis of this model, the seismic response for different CO2 injection geometries and saturation was studied using 1D elastic modeling and 2D acoustic finite difference modeling. Rock-physics models show that CO2 injected in a gaseous state, rather than in a supercritical state, will have a more pronounced effect on seismic velocity, resulting in a stronger CO2 response. However, reservoir heterogeneity and seismic resolution, as well as random and coherent seismic noise, are negative factors that need to be considered in a seismic monitoring program. In spite of these potential difficulties, our seismic modeling results indicate that the CO2 seismic response should be strong enough to allow tracking on surface seismic data. Amplitude-related attributes (i.e., acoustic impedance versus Poisson's ratio cross-plots) and time-shift measurements are shown to be suitable methods for CO2 monitoring.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 71, no 4, 109-124 p.
Keyword [en]
CO2 response, seismic monitoring, rock physics, seismic modeling
National Category
Geophysics
Research subject
Geophysics with specialization in Solid Earth Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-104169DOI: 10.1016/j.jappgeo.2010.05.004ISI: 000281334200002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-104169DiVA: diva2:219440
Projects
CO2SINK Project
Note
Uppdaterad från Manuskript till Artikel 20101203Available from: 2009-05-27 Created: 2009-05-27 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Seismic Investigations at the Ketzin CO2 Injection Site, Germany: Applications to Subsurface Feature Mapping and CO2 Seismic Response Modeling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seismic Investigations at the Ketzin CO2 Injection Site, Germany: Applications to Subsurface Feature Mapping and CO2 Seismic Response Modeling
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

3D seismic data are widely used for many different purposes. Despite different objectives, a common goal in almost all 3D seismic programs is to attain better understanding of the subsurface features. In gas injection projects, which are mainly for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and recently for environmental purposes, seismic data have an important role in the gas monitoring phase. This thesis deals with a 3D seismic investigation at the CO2 injection site at Ketzin, Germany. I focus on two critical aspects of the project: the internal architecture of the heterogeneous Stuttgart reservoir and the detectability of the CO2 response from surface seismic data.

Conventional seismic methods are not able to conclusively map the internal reservoir architecture due to their limited seismic resolution. In order to overcome this limitation, I use the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) decomposition technique, which provides frequency spectra with high temporal resolution without the disadvantages of the windowing process associated with the other techniques. Results from applying this technique reveal more of the details of sand bodies within the Stuttgart Formation. The CWT technique also helps to detect and map remnant gas on the top of the structure. In addition to this method, I also show that the pre-stack spectral blueing method, which is presented for the first time in this research, has an ability to enhance seismic resolution with fewer artifacts in comparison with the post-stack spectral blueing method.

The second objective of this research is to evaluate the CO2 response on surface seismic data as a feasibility study for CO2 monitoring. I build a rock physics model to estimate changes in elastic properties and seismic velocities caused by injected CO2. Based on this model, I study the seismic responses for different CO2 injection geometries and saturations using one dimensional (1D) elastic modeling and two dimensional (2D) acoustic finite-difference modeling. Results show that, in spite of random and coherent noises and reservoir heterogeneity, the CO2 seismic response should be strong enough to be detectable on surface seismic data. I use a similarity-based image registration method to isolate amplitude changes due to the reservoir from amplitude changes caused by time shifts below the reservoir. In support of seismic monitoring using surface seismic data, I also show that acoustic impedance versus Poisson’s ratio cross-plot is a suitable attribute for distinguishing gas-bearing sands from brine-bearing sands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 73 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 657
Keyword
Seismic resolution, Spectral blueing, CO2 seismic response, Continuous Wavelet Transform Decomposition, 3D seismic baseline, CO2SINK project
National Category
Geophysics
Research subject
Geophysics Specialized In Solid Earth
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-105032 (URN)978-91-554-7557-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-09-01, Axel Hambergsalen Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
CO2SINK Project
Available from: 2009-06-04 Created: 2009-05-31 Last updated: 2009-06-15

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Kazemeini, Sayed HesammoddinJuhlin, Christopher

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