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Long-term effects of surgical correction of adrenal hyperplasia and adenoma causing primary aldosteronism
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
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2010 (English)In: Langenbeck's archives of surgery (Print), ISSN 1435-2443, E-ISSN 1435-2451, Vol. 395, no 2, 133-137 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: The purpose of this is to study long-time results of surgery for primary aldosteronism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients operated on for primary aldosteronism were followed for an average of 7 years. All but five required potassium substitution. Systolic as well as diastolic hypertension (mean 157/93 mmHg) was present necessitating one to five antihypertensive drugs daily (mean 2.33). Preoperative indications for surgery included presumed adenoma (aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA)) or in one case unilateral dominance of hyperplasia. RESULTS: Histopathology was classified into adenoma (n = 9), dominant nodule (n = 16), and general hyperplasia without dominating nodules (n = 5), demonstrating a higher frequency of hyperplasia than anticipated. Long-term results revealed well-controlled blood pressure (BP; mean 134/80 mmHg). Antihypertensive medication was reduced (average of 1.78 per day), but only 36% of the patients were taken off these drugs completely. S-Aldosterone was normalized. All but one (a recurrence) were normokalemic without potassium substitution at follow-up. The APA group needed less medication (median 0.5 vs. 1.5 and 2 per day) and more patients in this group were totally medication free (50%). Two recurrences occurred in the group with general hyperplasia without dominating nodules. CONCLUSION: Nodular hyperplasia is more common than anticipated. Hypersecretion of aldosterone may be released from a large nodule identified as an adenoma, as well as from a generally hyperplastic gland that has not been identified as such. Nevertheless, surgery for lateralized disease results in good long-term control of BP with less antihypertensive medication. However, patients with dominant nodule or general hyperplasia without dominating nodules need more postoperative treatment than patients with APA. The majority of patients do not achieve normotension without medications, but they do become normokalemic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 395, no 2, 133-137 p.
Keyword [en]
Primary aldosteronism, Long-time follow-up, Surgery, Nodular hyperplasia
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-104657DOI: 10.1007/s00423-009-0498-4ISI: 000274652000006PubMedID: 19418066OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-104657DiVA: diva2:220031
Available from: 2009-05-29 Created: 2009-05-29 Last updated: 2015-06-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Clinical Studies on Adrenocortical Tumours using  [11C]-metomidate Positron Emission Tomography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clinical Studies on Adrenocortical Tumours using  [11C]-metomidate Positron Emission Tomography
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Adrenal tumours, discovered en passant in patients undergoing radiological examinations for non-adrenal disease, so-called adrenal incidentalomas, have increased dramatically in the recent era of more sophisticated diagnostic modalities such as high resolution multidetector computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, primary aldosteronism (PA) has been documented in several screening studies as being far more common than previously believed among hypertensive patients.

In this thesis, a long-term follow-up cohort of patients who had undergone surgery for PA revealed that there was an excellent effect on blood-pressure, reduction of anti-hypertensive medication and hypokalaemia after surgery, even though the majority of these patients still required some anti-hypertensive medication. This was also true, in the higher than expected number of dominant nodular hyperplasia (nIHA) found in the study, but was slightly less pronounced than in aldosterone producing adenomas (APA).  Surgery was thus effective in lateralized PA.

Metomidate positron emission tomography (MTO-PET) was explored in relation to histopathology in post-operative patients and found to be highly specific and sensitive in categorizing adrenocortical disease. Also, a higher standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio between tumours and normal adrenal cortex was found in hormonally hypersecreting adenomas as well as in adrenocortical cancer (ACC). The resolution limited the diagnosis of small tumours (<1-1.5 cm).

MTO-PET was compared to standard radiological modalities (CT and MRI) in the diagnostic work-up of adrenal incidentalomas. All three modalities categorized and characterized the lesions well, with MTO-PET showing the highest sensitivity and specificity.  However this method is currently recommended to be used as complementary to the others in unclear cases, due to high costs and less availability.

The resolution of MTO-PET was improved with respect to less noise and better delineation of small tumours when applying masked volume-wise principal component analysis (MVW-PCA), which will possibly enable future detection of small tumours in PA patients.

Dexamethasone suppression treatment prior to MTO-PET examinations in PA patients decreased SUV in normal adrenal cortex but could not be shown to increase the SUV ratio between adenoma and normal cortex enabling better detection of small tumours, even though all the tumours were readily categorized in the study. Heterogenic SUV reactions to dexamethasone treatment indicate a need for further studies and refinement of the suppression method.

In conclusion, long-term results of surgery for lateralized PA are good. MTO-PET is a highly sensitive and specific method for categorizing adrenocortical disease. Modulation of the method, e.g. by using MVW-PCA and refined dexamethasone suppression treatment, may improve the resolution of the method in delineating small tumours in PA, thus making MTO-PET a non-invasive and non-operator dependent future alternative to the currently recommended adrenal venous sampling (AVS) for lateralization diagnosis prior to surgery for PA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 33 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 486
National Category
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-108797 (URN)978-91-554-7618-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-11-14, Auditorium Minus, Museum Gustavianum, Uppsala, 09:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-10-23 Created: 2009-09-29 Last updated: 2009-10-23Bibliographically approved

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Hennings, JoakimSundin, AndersHellman, Per
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