PURPOSE: A prospective study was initiated 7 years previously to assess the efficacy of endoscopic dextranomer based implants for pediatric structural incontinence. Preliminary results revealed that at 3 years 50% of the patients were either dry or significantly improved. We report long-term results in the same cohort of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 33 children and adolescents 5 to 18 years old with severe incontinence due to sphincteric incompetence (exstrophy-epispadias complex in 13, neuropathic bladder in 16, bilateral ectopic ureter in 4) were enrolled. Of the patients 13 underwent 2 and 4 underwent 3 treatment sessions to achieve a definitive result. Mean injected volume was 3.9 ml (range 1.6 to 12) per session. At each evaluation patients were considered cured (dryness interval 4 hours), significantly improved (minimal incontinence requiring no more than 1 pad daily and no further treatment required) or treatment failures (no significant improvement). Videourodynamics were used to study the evolution of the bladder capacity, activity and compliance. A total of 31 patients were followed 3 to 7 years after the last injection. RESULTS: At 3 years after treatment 15 of 30 patients (50%) were dry or improved. One patient who had leakage after 3 years of dryness due to bladder deterioration subsequently underwent ileocystoplasty. At 4 years 12 of 25 patients (48%) were dry or improved. At 5 years 9 of 21 patients (43%) were dry, as were 4 of 11 (36%) at 6 years and 2 of 5 (40%) at 7 years of followup. The success rate according to pathological evaluation was comparable in neuropathic bladders (7 of 14, or 50%), exstrophy (3 of 6, or 50%) and epispadias (3 of 7, or 43%). Of 12 patients who underwent bladder neck plasty before the injection of bulking agent 7 (58%) were either dry or improved. The success rate was higher in males (13 of 23, or 57%) than in females (3 of 8, or 38%). Also, at puberty 2 males who were improved became dry. Bladder capacity increased in 12 of 18 initially small bladders and remained normal and stable in 9, while 4 initially dry patients had development of recurrent leakage secondary to bladder deterioration and underwent augmentation. Otherwise, there were no long-term side effects observed related to the injection of the bulking agent. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic treatment of severe organic urinary incontinence with dextranomer is durable for up to 7 years of followup in 40% of the patients.
2006. Vol. 175, no 4, 1485-9 p.