PURPOSE: To treat sphincteric deficiency in children endoscopic bladder neck injections may avoid or salvage more complex procedures. A prospective study to assess the efficacy of bladder neck injections of dextranomer based implants (Deflux(R)) was done in a 7-year period in 61 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 1997 to September 2004 we enrolled in the study 41 males and 20 females 5 to 18 years old with severe sphincteric incompetence, including exstrophy-epispadias in 26, neuropathic bladder in 27, bilateral ectopic ureters in 5, and miscellaneous in 3. Preoperative evaluation consisted of medical history, urine culture, urinary tract ultrasound and videourodynamics. This evaluation was repeated 6 months and 1 year after treatment, and yearly thereafter. Of the patients 17 underwent 2 and 4 underwent 3 treatment sessions to achieve a definitive result. At each evaluation the case was considered cured-a dryness interval of 4 hours between voids or CIC, significantly improved-minimal incontinence requiring no more than 1 pad daily and no further treatment required, and treatment failure-no significant, long lasting improvement. Videourodynamics were mainly useful to study the evolution of bladder capacity, activity and compliance. Followup after the last injection was 6 to 84 months (mean 28). RESULTS: Mean injected volume per session was 3.9 cc (range 1.6 to 12). Postoperative complications were temporary dysuria in 2 patients nonfebrile urinary tract infection in 10, orchid-epididymitis in 1 and urinary retention with pyelonephritis in 1. The incidence of dryness or improvement during followup was 79% (48 of 61 patients) at 1 month, 56% (31 of 55) at 6 months, 52% (24 of 46) at 1 year, 51% (18 of 35) at 2 years, 52% (16 of 31) at 3 years, 48% (12 of 25) at 4 years, 43% (9 of 21) at 5 years, 36% (4 of 11) at 6 years and 40% (2 of 5) at 7 years. The success rate according to pathological condition was similar in cases of neuropathic bladder and the exstrophy-epispadias complex (48% and 53%, respectively). The success rate in re-treated cases was 38%. After treatment a contracted bladder developed in 6 patients. Also, of the 35 patients with at least 2 years of followup an increase in capacity of at least 50% was observed in 12 of 18 with an initially small bladder. No side effects related to the substance were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic treatment for pediatric severe sphincteric deficiency with dextranomer implant, a nontoxic, nonimmunogenic, nonmigratory synthetic substance, was effective up to 2 years in half of the patients. Subsequently at up to 7 years of followup a slow decrease in efficacy was observed and treatment remained beneficial in 40% of the patients.
2006. Vol. 176, no 4 Pt 2, 1762-6 p.