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Risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease in the general population
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
2005 (English)In: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0269-2813, E-ISSN 1365-2036, Vol. 22, no 4, 309-315 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]


The aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease remains largely unknown.


We performed a comprehensive assessment of potential risk factors associated with the occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease.


We identified a cohort of patients 20-84 years old between 1995 and 1997 registered in the General Practitioner Research Database in the UK. A total of 444 incident cases of IBD were ascertained and validated with the general practitioner. We performed a nested case-control analysis using all cases and a random sample of 10 000 frequency-matched controls.


Incidence rates for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and indeterminate colitis were 11, 8, and 2 cases per 100 000 person-years, respectively. Among women, we found that long-term users of oral contraceptives were at increased risk of developing UC (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 0.89-6.22) and CD (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 1.24-7.99). Similarly, long-term users of HRT had an increased risk of CD (OR: 2.60; 95% CI: 1.04-6.49) but not UC. Current smokers experienced a reduced risk of UC along with an increased risk of CD. Prior appendectomy was associated with a decreased the risk of UC (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14-1.00).


Our results support the hypothesis of an increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease associated with oral contraceptives use and suggest a similar effect of hormone replacement therapy on CD. We also confirmed the effects of smoking and appendectomy on inflammatory bowel disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 22, no 4, 309-315 p.
Keyword [en]
Adult, Aged, Aged; 80 and over, Anti-Inflammatory Agents; Non-Steroidal/adverse effects, Appendectomy/adverse effects, Aspirin/adverse effects, Contraceptives; Oral/adverse effects, Epidemiologic Methods, Female, Humans, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/*epidemiology, Male, Middle Aged, Research Support; Non-U.S. Gov't, Smoking/adverse effects/epidemiology, Sweden/epidemiology
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-105682DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02564.xPubMedID: 16097997OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-105682DiVA: diva2:222184
Available from: 2009-06-07 Created: 2009-06-07 Last updated: 2011-08-15Bibliographically approved

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Wallander, Mari-Ann
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