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Realism of confidence, modes of apprehension, and variable-use in visual discrimination of relative mass
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2008 (English)In: Ecological psychology, ISSN 1040-7413, E-ISSN 1532-6969, Vol. 20, no 1, 1-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In dynamic event perception, one issue is whether direct perception or cue-based inferences explains learning and performance. For visual discrimination of relative mass of colliding objects, Runeson, Juslin, and Olsson (2000) found that observers change from an inferential to a direct-perceptual mode of apprehension during practice, as indicated by lower confidence in their judgments. Unlike Runeson et al. (2000), we scored confidence against the variables used in individual blocks and analyzed collision-subsets, thereby counteracting inflated confidence scores. A majority of 40 novice participants used a nonspecifying variable and functioned inferentially, as indicated by realistic confidence. Five novices used the mass-ratio invariant and were overconfident therein. Ten participants received feedback based on the most-used nonspecifying variable. Despite feedback suggesting specificity of the variable, they continued to use the variable inferentially. After practice based on the invariant, 7 out of 10 used the invariant. An unexpected  dearth of underconfidence for invariant usage is explained by fluctuations in variable usage. Methodological problems in the use of confidence as a mode indicator are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 20, no 1, 1-31 p.
Keyword [en]
perception, perceptual skill acquisition, modes of apprehension, learning
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-106162DOI: 10.1080/10407410701766601ISI: 000253314800001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-106162DiVA: diva2:224121
Projects
The Bank of Sweden Centennial Foundation (RJ)The Swedish Research Council (VR)
Available from: 2009-06-16 Created: 2009-06-16 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Modes of Apprehension, and Indicators thereof, in Visual Discrimination of Relative Mass
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modes of Apprehension, and Indicators thereof, in Visual Discrimination of Relative Mass
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Perception is a fundamental function because it allows organisms to be in contact with the environment and adjust to environmental conditions. Humans also possess higher intellectual functions, which allow for elaborate handling of perceptually obtained information. The thesis concerns a distinction between an inferential ("cognitive") mode and a (direct-)perceptual mode of apprehension, and a notion of perceptual skill acquisition as a transition from the inferential to the perceptual mode. The mode distinction and the mode-transition model was formulated by Runeson, Juslin, and Olsson (2000) within the ecological direct-perception framework (Gibson, 1966, 1979).

The modes of apprehension were investigated in an experimental paradigm that concerned visual perception of the relative mass of two colliding objects. The relative mass is specified by an optical variable in the collision movement pattern, which observers may pick up while functioning in the perceptual mode. However, novices often rely on other, nonspecifying, optical variables that may constitute cues that are used in the inferential mode (Runeson et al., 2000).

Four tentative mode indicators were employed: participants' realism of confidence, introspective mode reports, amplitudes of brain event-related potentials, and response times. Generally, the results did not support the mode-transition model of skill acquisition. Furthermore, results suggested that reliance both on the specifying and nonspecifying variables might have occurred either in the inferential or in the perceptual mode. However, the mode indicators may not have captured mode as intended. For instance, the discriminability of used optical variables, and not the mode of apprehension, may have affected both amplitudes of event-related potentials and mode reports.

It is argued that the mode-transition model and the distinction between two modes of apprehension should be further investigated employing other methodologies, and, furthermore, that the mode distinction has a place within an ecological framework.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 52
Keyword
Modes of apprehension, dynamical-event perception, ecological psychology
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-108214 (URN)978-91-554-7602-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-10-16, Sal VIII, Universitetshuset, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-09-25 Created: 2009-09-08 Last updated: 2011-01-12Bibliographically approved

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