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Realism of confidence and phenomenological reports are not congruent indicators of mode of apprehension in visual discrimination of relative mass
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2009 (English)In: Ecological psychology, ISSN 1040-7413, E-ISSN 1532-6969, Vol. 21, no 3, 218-244 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In visual judgments of relative mass of colliding objects observers may function in either a perceptual or an inferential mode of apprehension (Runeson, Juslin, & Olsson, 2000). This finding was based on participants’ over/underconfidence in their judgments. Also phenomenological mode reports, for which participants indicated whether they “saw” or “inferred” the relative mass in each trial, have been used as mode indicators (Andersson, Kreegipuu, Allik, & Runeson, 2009). The present study showed that over/underconfidence and mode reports are not congruent as mode indicators: in Experiments 1 and 2, participants’ over/ underconfidence was about the same in “saw” and “inferred” trials. Furthermore, in Experiment 3, unexpectedly judgments of relative exit-speed did not engender underconfidence. Hence, one or both indicators do not well enough distinguish the modes of apprehension.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 21, no 3, 218-244 p.
Keyword [en]
perception, modes of apprehension, skill acquisition, learning
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-106166DOI: 10.1080/10407410903058260ISI: 000269343300002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-106166DiVA: diva2:224124
Projects
The Swedish Research Council (VR)
Available from: 2009-06-16 Created: 2009-06-16 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Modes of Apprehension, and Indicators thereof, in Visual Discrimination of Relative Mass
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modes of Apprehension, and Indicators thereof, in Visual Discrimination of Relative Mass
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Perception is a fundamental function because it allows organisms to be in contact with the environment and adjust to environmental conditions. Humans also possess higher intellectual functions, which allow for elaborate handling of perceptually obtained information. The thesis concerns a distinction between an inferential ("cognitive") mode and a (direct-)perceptual mode of apprehension, and a notion of perceptual skill acquisition as a transition from the inferential to the perceptual mode. The mode distinction and the mode-transition model was formulated by Runeson, Juslin, and Olsson (2000) within the ecological direct-perception framework (Gibson, 1966, 1979).

The modes of apprehension were investigated in an experimental paradigm that concerned visual perception of the relative mass of two colliding objects. The relative mass is specified by an optical variable in the collision movement pattern, which observers may pick up while functioning in the perceptual mode. However, novices often rely on other, nonspecifying, optical variables that may constitute cues that are used in the inferential mode (Runeson et al., 2000).

Four tentative mode indicators were employed: participants' realism of confidence, introspective mode reports, amplitudes of brain event-related potentials, and response times. Generally, the results did not support the mode-transition model of skill acquisition. Furthermore, results suggested that reliance both on the specifying and nonspecifying variables might have occurred either in the inferential or in the perceptual mode. However, the mode indicators may not have captured mode as intended. For instance, the discriminability of used optical variables, and not the mode of apprehension, may have affected both amplitudes of event-related potentials and mode reports.

It is argued that the mode-transition model and the distinction between two modes of apprehension should be further investigated employing other methodologies, and, furthermore, that the mode distinction has a place within an ecological framework.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 52
Keyword
Modes of apprehension, dynamical-event perception, ecological psychology
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-108214 (URN)978-91-554-7602-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-10-16, Sal VIII, Universitetshuset, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-09-25 Created: 2009-09-08 Last updated: 2011-01-12Bibliographically approved

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