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Cryptic barriers to dispersal within a lake allow genetic differentiation of Eurasian perch
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
2007 (English)In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 61, no 8, 2035-2041 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gene flow between coexisting or nearby populations normally prevents genetic divergence and local adaptation. Despite this, there are an increasing number of reports of sympatric sister taxa, indicating potential divergence and speciation in the face of gene flow. A large number of such reported cases involve lake-dwelling fish, which are expected to run into few physical barriers to dispersal within their aquatic habitat. However, such cases may not necessarily reflect sympatric speciation if cryptic dispersal barriers are common in lakes and other aquatic systems. In this study, we examined genetic differentiation in perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) from nine locations in a single, small lake (24 km(2)), using microsatellites. We detected significant genetic differentiation in all but two pairwise comparisons. These patterns were not consistent with divergence by distance or the existence of kin groups. Instead, they suggest that cryptic barriers to dispersal exist within the lake, allowing small-scale genetic divergence. Such an observation suggests that allopatric (or parapatric) divergence may be possible, even in small, apparently homogenous environments such as lakes. This has important consequences for how we currently view evidence from nature for sympatric speciation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell , 2007. Vol. 61, no 8, 2035-2041 p.
Keyword [en]
Allopatric speciation, Geographic reproductive barriers, Microsatellites, Perca fluviatilis L., Small-scale genetic divergence, sympatric speciation
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107227DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00163.xISI: 000248600300022OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-107227DiVA: diva2:228366
Available from: 2009-07-30 Created: 2009-07-30 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Population divergence at small spatial scales: – theoretical and empirical investigations in perch
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Population divergence at small spatial scales: – theoretical and empirical investigations in perch
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Genetically structured populations arise when gene flow between groups of individuals is hindered by geographical, behavioural or temporal barriers. The identification of such groups is important for understanding evolution and has large implications for conservation concern. The field of population subdivision has received a lot of interest throughout the years and gained empirical support from a number of species. However, very little is known about population structure at small spatial scales, especially in a highly mobile species such as fish. The main object for my thesis was to further investigate population differentiation, explicitly at small spatial scales in the Eurasian perch. My results show that in this species, genetic differentiation occurs, even at very small spatial scales, both within lakes and in the Baltic Sea. Additionally, the differentiation can be stable over years and thus have a large impact in the evolution of adaptation to different environments. I also found barriers to gene flow that overlapped with the largest change in spring temperature, suggesting a temporal difference in spawning. Morphological differences were found at these small scales as well which indicates that a difference in food resources might be an underlying cause of change. My thesis work shows that the aquatic environment might not be as homogenous as widely thought and that there could be barriers or adaptations to different environments that hinder the fish from genetic panmixia. Slight patterns of isolation by distance (IBD) were found in the Baltic Sea, implying that the distance (i.e. currents) effect the level of differentiation via drifting of larvae and/or small fish. However, I have also theoretically investigated the IBD model of and seen that it is no longer correct when differences in population sizes are introduced. The pattern of IBD can mean high levels of gene flow or no gene flow at all, solely dependent on population size differences and fluctuations. My thesis has resulted in new and important findings regarding the existence and cause of genetic differentiation at very small spatial scales and thus added new knowledge into the field of evolution and speciation. In addition, my results also give insights into the contemporary state of the Eurasian perch and future evolutionary potential.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 33 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 659
Keyword
Perca fluviatilis L., Perch, Small scale genetic differentiation, Morphometrics, Isolation by distance, Dispersal, Gene flow, Microsatellites, Spatiotemporal stability, Barriers
National Category
Biological Sciences Ecology
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107223 (URN)978-91-554-7573-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-09-18, Zootissalen, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-08-28 Created: 2009-07-29 Last updated: 2017-07-12Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full texthttp://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00163.x

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Bergek, SaraBjörklund, Mats

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