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The effect of local population dynamics on patterns of isolation by distance
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.
2010 (English)In: Ecological Informatics, ISSN 1574-9541, Vol. 5, no 3, 167-172 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Isolation-by-distance (IBD) is a widely used model explaining population structure and how gene flow decreases with increasing distances. It is biologically intuitive that populations which rarely exchange individuals should drift apart genetically. However, the model is based on the assumptions that populations are large, equal in size and stable over time - conditions that are unlikely to occur in natural conditions. The model has been challenged in the past, for example, in the light of metapopulations or variance in reproductive success. However, an appraisal of the assumption of a large and stable population size per se is lacking. We investigate the robustness of the results concerning IBD patterns when smaller and fluctuating population sizes, or differences in population size are allowed. Through computer simulations we show that allowing for different population sizes and randomly fluctuations leads to unpredictable patterns regarding the results concerning gene flow and IBD. A pattern of IBD could be the result of high gene flow or no gene flow at all, depending on how populations differ in size and how they fluctuate. Adding environmental noise (white, red and blue noise corresponding to random, positive and negative autocorrelation respectively) gives even more unpredictable results concerning patterns of IBD. Our results have important implications for genetic and conservation research. Interpreting an IBD pattern, or lack thereof, is not as easy as earlier thought and needs to be more thoroughly explored.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 5, no 3, 167-172 p.
Keyword [en]
Isolation-by-distance, Wright’s Island model, effective population size, stepping stone model, FST, computer simulations
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107249DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoinf.2009.12.003ISI: 000277916000002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-107249DiVA: diva2:228396
Available from: 2009-07-30 Created: 2009-07-30 Last updated: 2016-04-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Population divergence at small spatial scales: – theoretical and empirical investigations in perch
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Population divergence at small spatial scales: – theoretical and empirical investigations in perch
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Genetically structured populations arise when gene flow between groups of individuals is hindered by geographical, behavioural or temporal barriers. The identification of such groups is important for understanding evolution and has large implications for conservation concern. The field of population subdivision has received a lot of interest throughout the years and gained empirical support from a number of species. However, very little is known about population structure at small spatial scales, especially in a highly mobile species such as fish. The main object for my thesis was to further investigate population differentiation, explicitly at small spatial scales in the Eurasian perch. My results show that in this species, genetic differentiation occurs, even at very small spatial scales, both within lakes and in the Baltic Sea. Additionally, the differentiation can be stable over years and thus have a large impact in the evolution of adaptation to different environments. I also found barriers to gene flow that overlapped with the largest change in spring temperature, suggesting a temporal difference in spawning. Morphological differences were found at these small scales as well which indicates that a difference in food resources might be an underlying cause of change. My thesis work shows that the aquatic environment might not be as homogenous as widely thought and that there could be barriers or adaptations to different environments that hinder the fish from genetic panmixia. Slight patterns of isolation by distance (IBD) were found in the Baltic Sea, implying that the distance (i.e. currents) effect the level of differentiation via drifting of larvae and/or small fish. However, I have also theoretically investigated the IBD model of and seen that it is no longer correct when differences in population sizes are introduced. The pattern of IBD can mean high levels of gene flow or no gene flow at all, solely dependent on population size differences and fluctuations. My thesis has resulted in new and important findings regarding the existence and cause of genetic differentiation at very small spatial scales and thus added new knowledge into the field of evolution and speciation. In addition, my results also give insights into the contemporary state of the Eurasian perch and future evolutionary potential.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 33 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 659
Keyword
Perca fluviatilis L., Perch, Small scale genetic differentiation, Morphometrics, Isolation by distance, Dispersal, Gene flow, Microsatellites, Spatiotemporal stability, Barriers
National Category
Biological Sciences Ecology
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107223 (URN)978-91-554-7573-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-09-18, Zootissalen, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-08-28 Created: 2009-07-29 Last updated: 2017-07-12Bibliographically approved

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Björklund, MatsBergek, Sara

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