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A new material for hydrogen storage; ScAl0.8Mg0.2
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. (Oorganisk kemi)
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2009 (English)In: Journal of Solid State Chemistry, ISSN 0022-4596, E-ISSN 1095-726X, Vol. 182, no 11, 3113-3117 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel aluminium rich alloy for hydrogen storage has been discovered,   ScAl0.8Mg0.2, which has very promising properties regarding hydrogen   storage capacity, kinetics and stability towards air oxidation in   comparison to hydrogen absorption in state-of-the-art intermetallic   compounds. The absorption of hydrogen was found to be very fast, even   without adding any catalyst, and reversible. The discovered alloy   crystallizes in a CsCl-type structure, but decomposes to ScH2 and   Al(Mg) during hydrogen absorption. Detailed analysis of the hydrogen   absorption in ScAl0.8Mg0.2 has been performed using in situ synchrotron   radiation powder X-ray diffraction, neutron powder diffraction and   quantum mechanical calculations. The results from theory and   experiments are in good agreement with each other.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 182, no 11, 3113-3117 p.
Keyword [en]
Scandium intermetallics, Hydrides, Hydrogen storage materials, X-ray diffraction.
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Inorganic Chemistry
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107389DOI: 10.1016/j.jssc.2009.08.027ISI: 000271682600023OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-107389DiVA: diva2:229062
Available from: 2009-08-11 Created: 2009-08-10 Last updated: 2012-04-02
In thesis
1. Light-Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Light-Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Demands for zero greenhouse-gas emission vehicles have sharpened with today’s increased focus on global warming. Hydrogen storage is a key technology for the implementation of hydrogen powered vehicles. Metal hydrides can claim higher energy densities than alternative hydrogen storage materials, but a remaining challenge is to find a metal hydride which satisfies all current demands on practical usability. Several metals store large amounts of hydrogen by forming a metal hydride, e.g., Mg, Ti and Al. The main problems are the weight of the material and the reaction energy between the metal and hydrogen.

Magnesium has a high storage capacity (7.6 wt.% hydrogen) in forming MgH2; this is a slow reaction, but can be accelerated either by minimizing the diffusion length within the hydride or by changing the diffusion properties. Light-metal hydrides have been studied in this thesis with the goal of finding new hydrogen storage compounds and of gaining a better understanding of the parameters which determine their storage properties. Various magnesium-containing compounds have been investigated. These systems represent different ways to address the problems which arise in exploiting magnesium based materials. The compounds were synthesized in sealed tantalum tubes, and investigated by in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction, neutron powder diffraction, isothermal measurements, thermal desorption spectroscopy and electron microscopy.

It is demonstrated that hydrogen storage properties can be improved by alloying magnesium with yttrium or scandium. Mg-Y-compounds decompose in hydrogen to form MgH2 nano-structures. Hydrogen desorption kinetics are improved compared to pure MgH2. The influence of adding a third element, gallium or zinc has also been studied; it is shown that gallium improves hydrogen desorption from YH2. ScAl1-xMgx is presented here for the first time as a hydrogen storage material. It absorbs hydrogen by forming ScH2 and Al(Mg) in a fully reversible reaction. It is shown that the hydrogen desorption temperature of ScH2 is reduced by more than 400 °C by alloying with aluminium and magnesium.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 56 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 666
Metal-hydrogen compounds, hydrides, hydrogen storage, X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, thermal desorption spectroscopy
National Category
Chemical Sciences Inorganic Chemistry
Research subject
Inorganic Chemistry
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107380 (URN)978-91-554-7585-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-09-25, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Available from: 2009-09-04 Created: 2009-08-10 Last updated: 2009-09-04Bibliographically approved

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Sahlberg, MartinKádas, KrisztinaVitos, LeventeEriksson, Olle
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Inorganic ChemistryDepartment of Physics and Materials Science
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Journal of Solid State Chemistry
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