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Duration of exclusive breast-feeding and infant iron and zinc status in rural Bangladesh
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. (Internationell barnhälsa och nutrition/Persson)
Child Health Unit, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. (Internationell barnhälsa och nutrition/Persson)
Child Health Unit, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.
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2009 (English)In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 139, no 8, 1562-1567 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a concern that exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) for 6 mo may lead to iron and zinc deficiency in low-birth weight (LBW) infants. We assessed the association between duration of EBF and infant iron and zinc status in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab trial, Bangladesh, stratified for normal birth weigh (NBW) and LBW. Duration of EBF was classified into EBF <4 mo and EBF 4-6 mo based on monthly recalls of foods introduced to the infant. Blood samples collected at 6 mo were analyzed for plasma zinc (n = 1032), plasma ferritin (n = 1040), and hemoglobin (Hb) (n = 791). Infants EBF 4-6 mo had a higher mean plasma zinc concentration (9.9 +/- 2.3 micromol/L) than infants EBF <4mo (9.5 +/- 2.0 micromol/L) (P < 0.01). This association was apparent in only the NBW strata and was not reflected in a lower prevalence of zinc deficiency. Duration of EBF was not associated with concentration of plasma ferritin, Hb concentration, or prevalence of iron deficiency or anemia in any strata. Regardless of EBF duration, the prevalence of zinc deficiency, iron deficiency, and anemia was high in infants in this population and strategies to prevent deficiency are needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 139, no 8, 1562-1567 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107966DOI: 10.3945/jn.109.104919ISI: 000268362000020PubMedID: 19535419OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-107966DiVA: diva2:233753
Available from: 2009-09-02 Created: 2009-09-02 Last updated: 2011-03-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Infant Anemia and Micronutrient Status: Studies of Early Determinants in Rural Bangladesh
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infant Anemia and Micronutrient Status: Studies of Early Determinants in Rural Bangladesh
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies in infancy are common in low-income settings. These are partly due to maternal malnutrition and may impair child health and development. We studied the impact of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation, duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), growth and infection on infant anemia and micronutrient status.

In the MINIMat trial in Matlab, Bangladesh, pregnant women were randomized to Early or Usual promotion of enrolment in a food supplementation program and to one of three daily micronutrient supplements. Capsules containing 400µg folic acid and (a) 30 mg iron (Fe30Fol), (b) 60 mg iron (Fe60Fol), (c) 30 mg iron and other micronutrients (MMS) were provided from week 14 of gestation. Capsule intake was assessed with the eDEM device recording supplement container openings. Blood samples (n=2377) from women at week 14 and 30 were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb). Duration of EBF and infant morbidity was based on monthly maternal recalls. Infants were weighed and measured monthly. Blood samples (n=1066) from 6-months-old infants were analyzed for Hb and plasma ferritin, zinc, retinol, vitamin B12 and folate.

In women, Hb increase per capsule reached a plateau at 60 Fe60Fol capsules, indicating that nine weeks of daily supplementation produced maximum Hb response. Anemia was common (36%) at capsule intakes >60 indicating other causes of anemia than iron deficiency.

In infants, vitamin B12 deficiency prevalence was lower in the MMS (26.1%) than in the Fe30Fol group (36.5%), (p=0.003) and zinc deficiency prevalence was lower in the Usual than in the Early group. There were no other differential effects of food or micronutrient supplementation on infant anemia or micronutrient status. Infants exclusively breast-fed for 4-6 months had a higher mean plasma zinc concentration (9.9±2.3 µmol/L) than infants exclusively breast-fed for <4 months (9.5±2.0 µmol/L), (p< 0.01). No other differences in anemia, iron or zinc status were observed between EBF categories. Infection, low birth weight and iron deficiency were independent risk factors for infant anemia. Regardless of studied interventions, prevalence of anemia (43%), deficiency of zinc (56%), vitamin B12, vitamin A (19%) and iron (22%) in infancy was high and further preventive strategies are needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 52 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 638
Keyword
Micronutrients, Anemia, Iron Deficiency, Zinc Deficiency, Vitamin A Deficiency, Vitamin B12 Deficiency, Folic Acid Deficiency, Infant, Pregnancy, Dietary Supplementation, Hemoglobin, Dose-Response Relationship, Exclusive Breast Feeding, Bangladesh
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
International Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-143058 (URN)978-91-554-7992-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-03-09, Rosénsalen, Akademiska sjukhuset, Ing 95/96 nbv, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
MINIMat
Available from: 2011-02-16 Created: 2011-01-19 Last updated: 2011-03-21Bibliographically approved

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