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Improved salt iodation methods for small-scale salt producers in low-resource settings in Tanzania
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. (Internationell barnhälsa och nutrition/Persson)
Centre for International Healht, University of Bergen, Norway.
Geological Survey of Tanzania, Ministry of Energy and Minerals, Dodoma, Tanzania.
Food Science and Nutrition Department, Tanzania.
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2009 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 9, 187- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Universal salt iodation will prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Globally, salt-iodation technologies mostly target large and medium-scale salt-producers. Since most producers in low-income countries are small-scale, we examined and improved the performance of hand and knapsack-sprayers used locally in Tanzania. METHODS: We studied three salt facilities on the Bagamoyo coast, investigating procedures for preparing potassium-iodate solution, salt spraying and mixing. Different concentrations of solution were prepared and tested using different iodation methods, with the aim of attaining correct and homogeneous iodine levels under real-life conditions. Levels achieved by manual mixing were compared to those achieved by machine mixing. RESULTS: The overall median iodation level in samples of salt iodated using previously existing methods was 10.6 ppm (range 1.1 - 110.0 ppm), with much higher levels in the top than the bottom layers of the salt bags, p < 0.0001. Experimentation using knapsack-sprayers and manual mixing led to the reliable achievement of levels (60.9 ppm +/- 7.4) that fell within the recommended range of 40 - 80 ppm. The improved methods yielded homogenous iodine concentrations in all layers of salt-bags (p = 0.58) with 96% of the samples (n = 45) falling within 40 - 80 ppm compared to only 9% (n = 45) before the experiment and training (p < 0.0001). For knapsack-spraying, a machine mixer improved the iodine levels and homogeneity slightly compared to manual mixing (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Supervised, standardized salt iodation procedures adapted to local circumstances can yield homogeneous iodine levels within the required range, overcoming a major obstacle to universal salt iodation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 9, 187- p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107972DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-187ISI: 000268142600001PubMedID: 19534763OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-107972DiVA: diva2:233771
Available from: 2009-09-02 Created: 2009-09-02 Last updated: 2010-07-19Bibliographically approved

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