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Pharmacy users' expectations of pharmacy encounters: a Q-methodological study
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. (Samhällsfarmaci)
AstraZeneca AB.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. (Samhällsfarmaci)
Uppsala University, University Administration. (Samhällsfarmaci)
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2011 (English)In: Health Expectations, ISSN 1369-6513, E-ISSN 1369-7625, Vol. 14, no 4, 361-373 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Pharmacy practice is evolving according to general healthcare trends such as increased patient involvement, evidence-based practice and public health initiatives. In addition to this, pharmacists strive to find new professional roles. Clients’ expectations of service encounters at pharmacies is an under-explored topic but crucial to understand how pharmacy practice can evolve efficiently.

Objective: To identify and describe clusters of people with different normative expectations of the pharmacy encounter.

Methods: Q-methodology, an approach to systematically explore subjectivity that retain complete patterns of response and organises these into factors of operant subjectivity. 

Setting and participants: 85 regular prescription medication users mainly recruited at Swedish community pharmacies.

Results: Seven factors of operant subjectivity were identified, organised into two groups. Factors that emphasised the physical drug product as the central object of the pharmacy encounter were labelled as independent drug shopping; logistics of drug distribution; and drugs before drug use before healthcare. Factors that emphasised personal support as desirable were labelled competence as individual support; individualist professional relations, just take care of me; and practical healthcare and lifestyle support.

Discussion and conclusions: The systematic q-methodological approach yielded valuable insights in how pharmacy clients construct their expectations for service encounters. They hold differentiating normative expectations for pharmacy services. Understanding these varying viewpoints is important for developing and prioritising among efficient pharmacy services. Clients’ expectations do not correspond with many of the trends that guide current pharmacy practice development. This might be a challenge for promoting or implementing services based on such trends.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 14, no 4, 361-373 p.
Keyword [en]
Q-methodology, pharmacy services, pharmacy practice development, pharmacy encounter, normative expectations
National Category
Social and Clinical Pharmacy
Research subject
Social Pharmacy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-108388DOI: 10.1111/j.1369-7625.2010.00643.xISI: 000297244400004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-108388DiVA: diva2:235664
Available from: 2009-09-17 Created: 2009-09-17 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Patient Perspectives on Community Pharmacy Services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patient Perspectives on Community Pharmacy Services
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Community pharmacy practice is changing, putting a greater emphasis on patient involvement and empowerment than on physical drug products. Developing practice philosophies, such as pharmaceutical care, are operationalised through an ever-evolving service proliferation. There is, however, a paucity of studies addressing the patients’ subjective perceptions of pharmacy services. The few studies that measure the impact of pharmacy services on humanistic outcomes show little or no effect. This might be due to the services, or the assessment instruments used.

The aim of this thesis was to enhance the understanding of how patients perceive community pharmacy services, their preferences for community pharmacy services, and how these services could be evaluated from the patient perspective.

This was done by: 1.exploring patients’ perceptions of an existing pharmaceutical care service using in-depth interviews; 2. exploring patient preferences for the ideal pharmacy visit using Q methodology, and characterising those patient groups that have different preferences and; 3. testing the validity of the Swedish version of the Pharmaceutical Therapy-Related Quality of Life (PTRQoL)-instrument, using think aloud methodology.

Patients had vague, and sometimes erroneous, understandings about a pharmaceutical care service that they were currently receiving. They reported that the service had increased their feeling of safety, enhanced their knowledge, provided drug treatment control, and empowered them. Seven different viewpoints of the ideal pharmacy service were identified, which could be broadly divided into two groups, those emphasising the physical drug products as central to the encounter and those seeking a relationship with the pharmacist. Some differences between the group characteristics were identified, but not specific enough to guide individualised care practice. Several problems with the validity of the PTRQoL-instrument were detected. Overall, the thesis has highlighted various aspects of patient perspectives on community pharmacy services that could be used for the development andassessment of such services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 95 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Pharmacy, ISSN 1651-6192 ; 105
Keyword
community pharmacy services, patient prespectives, pharmacy services, pharmaceutical care, Q methodology
National Category
Social and Clinical Pharmacy
Research subject
Social Pharmacy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-108392 (URN)978-91-554-7610-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-11-06, lecture hall B21, Biomedical centre (BMC), Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-10-16 Created: 2009-09-17 Last updated: 2009-10-16Bibliographically approved

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Renberg, TobiasKälvemark Sporrong, SofiaKettis Lindblad, Åsa

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